Ciena Corporation has a market cap of $1.53 billion; its shares were traded at around $15.87 with and P/S ratio of 0.9.
Highlight of Business Operations:We generated revenue of $1.8 billion in fiscal 2012, as compared to $1.7 billion in fiscal 2011. For more information regarding our results of operations, see “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of Part II of this annual report. We currently organize our operations into four separate operating segments: “Packet-Optical Transport,” “Packet-Optical Switching,” “Carrier Ethernet Solutions,” and “Software and Services.” The matters discussed in this “Business” section should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements found under Item 8 of Part II of this annual report, which include additional financial information about our operating segments, total assets, revenue, measures of profit and loss, and financial information about geographic areas and customers representing greater than 10% of revenue.
In spite of margin improvement in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, our lower revenue and increased operating expense described above resulted in a loss from operations for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 of $21.9 million, as compared to a $15.3 million loss from operations during the third quarter of fiscal 2012. Our net loss for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 was $38.8 million, or $0.39 per share. This compares to a net loss of $29.8 million or $0.30 per share, for the third quarter of fiscal 2012.
Our total deferred revenue for products was $42.9 million and $29.3 million as of October 31, 2011 and October 31, 2012, respectively. Our services revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the period during which the services are to be performed. Our total deferred revenue for services was $80.9 million and $77.8 million as of October 31, 2011 and October 31, 2012, respectively.
We make estimates about future customer demand for our products when establishing the appropriate reserve for excess and obsolete inventory. We write down inventory that has become obsolete or unmarketable by an amount equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated market value based on assumptions about future demand and market conditions. Inventory write downs are a component of our product cost of goods sold. Upon recognition of the write down, a new lower cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. In an effort to limit our exposure to delivery delays and to satisfy customer needs we purchase inventory based on forecasted sales across our product lines. In addition, part of our research and development strategy is to promote the convergence of similar features and functionalities across our product lines. Each of these practices exposes us to the risk that our customers will not order products for which we have forecasted sales, or will purchase less than we have forecasted. Historically, we have experienced write downs due to changes in our strategic direction, discontinuance of a product and declines in market conditions. We recorded charges for excess and obsolete inventory of $17.3 million and $23.4 million in fiscal 2011 and 2012, respectively. The charges in fiscal 2011 were primarily related to excess inventory due to a change in forecasted sales across our product line. The charges in fiscal 2012 were primarily related to engineering design changes and the discontinuance of certain parts and components used in the manufacture of our Packet-Optical Transport and Packet-Optical Switching products. Our inventory net of allowance for excess and obsolescence was $230.1 million and $260.1 million as of October 31, 2011 and October 31, 2012, respectively.
Our liability for product warranties, included in other accrued liabilities, was $47.3 million and $55.1 million as of October 31, 2011 and October 31, 2012, respectively. Our products are generally covered by a warranty for periods ranging from one to five years. We accrue for warranty costs as part of our cost of goods sold based on associated material costs, technical support labor costs and associated overhead. Material cost is estimated based primarily upon historical trends in the volume of product returns within the warranty period and the cost to repair or replace the equipment. Technical support labor cost is estimated based primarily upon historical trends and the cost to support the customer cases within the warranty period. The provision for product warranties was $18.5 million and $33.4 million for fiscal 2011 and 2012, respectively. See Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this report. The provision for warranty claims may fluctuate on a quarterly basis depending upon the mix of products and customers in that period. If actual product failure rates, material replacement costs, service or labor costs differ from our estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty provision would be required. An increase in warranty claims or the related costs associated with satisfying these warranty obligations could increase our cost of sales and negatively affect our gross margin.
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