Yet at the same time, despite such rich valuations, I believe that highly selective and intelligent investment in stocks offers the best means for me to grow my investment capital at an acceptable rate over the long term, while also preserving the absolute value and purchasing power of my capital. I come to this realization by simply looking at the alternatives available to me – Irish bank deposit savings rates of about 3% (before DIRT tax of 33%!) and fixed income investments at record low yields, which are in fact negative in real terms on short-dated issues, and just about keeping pace with local inflation at longer maturity issues. In such an environment then, there is no real return to be earned on cash deposits or fixed income – the best possible “return” available is simply return of capital, rather than any actual return on capital. So while this may allow me to preserve capital (just about), it will not allow me to grow it over time. So I must look to certain areas of the stock market to achieve my personal investment objectives.
Having made the decision that investing in stocks is the optimum way to achieve my investment goals at present, I am on the lookout to to acquire a share in businesses that meet specific “value” criteria. As a brief reminder to help me to focus on the task at hand, in following the value investing tradition, I am looking for undervalued securities of businesses that are undervalued in the sense that they have been erroneously mispriced by the market for a variety of reasons. If these represent attractive investment opportunities, why might they be undervalued in the first place? In my view, there are two broad reasons for good investments becoming undervalued:
- Out of favor: a company may fall out of favor with the market, for reasons such as its securities are sold-off excessively given temporary, adverse news-flow about the company of sector (e.g. a quarterly EPS announcement “miss”), or that is not a “hot stock” (think anything Apple, or smartphone related during 2011 and 2012, or the more extreme dot-com bubble of the late 1990s). Of course the challenge in assessing an out-of-favor business is determining whether the sell-off and subsequent mis-pricing is attributable to a temporary or permanent difficulty or issue facing the company in question. Frequently, the market misunderstands this, leading to a value opportunity.
- Ignored: similar to the out-of-favor scenario, often times a business is mispriced by the market due to the simple fact that it has been ignored, in the sense that no analysts are following it – essentially, the market is ignorant of the potential opportunity. Typically, businesses in this category are small-cap issues and given the lack of coverage, knowledge and understanding of the business, they reside in a “hidden corner” of the market, resulting in mispricing.
As I commence my investment program, and being very cognizant of current near-peak stock market valuations, there are in my view three broad categories that offer the best opportunity for me to achieve my investment objectives (safety of principal, adequate return, compounding over the long term). These three categories are as follows:
- Deep value
- Quality value
- Special situations
Additionally, bargain-priced stocks often tend to lie in those hidden corners of the market, are frequently small-cap issues, and almost routinely are out-of-favor and unloved. In the present richly priced market then, seeking out and taking advantage of such opportunities seems a more sensible and promising prospect than chasing fairly priced businesses that have already been lifted as part of the significant rally in stock prices since March 2009. This deep value approach helps to reinforce the margin of safety principle.
“Quality value” is the label I use to refer to “Buffett-type” businesses, that is, companies with similar characteristics to those that Warrant Buffett sought out in the post-Buffett Partnership, Berkshire Hathaway-building phase of his career. Quality value opportunities essentially combine the prudent, value-focused principles of Graham with the more forward-looking, growth-oriented concepts espoused by Philip Fisher in "Common Stocks and Uncommon Profits."
Buffett’s investment in Coca-Cola (NYSE:KO) is perhaps the best example of quality value; when Buffett first purchased shares in Coca-Cola in 1988, its shares were priced around 15x earnings, not a bargain price, nor a low multiple (in fact more indicative of a fair value multiple for a large, blue-chip business). So where was the value in this instance? The value resided in the quality of the business, namely its consistency in terms of returns on capital and its favorable long-term prospects, which Buffett believed would result in the company being able to grow in value over time. This meant that Buffett was able to invest in a business at a price that was an attractive discount to his reasonable estimate of its intrinsic value.
I am also conscious that my view of quality-value businesses should not simply be a coat-tailing of Buffett’s (or any other successful investor’s) investments, however. In his profile of Michael Burry in "The BigShort," Michael Lewis noted that if Buffett’s track record has taught us anything, it is that to succeed in a spectacular fashion you had to be spectacularly unusual. Burry says, “If you are going to be a great investor, you have to fit the style to who you are… I recognized that Warren Buffett, though he had every advantage in learning from Ben Graham, did not copy Ben Graham, but rather set out on his own path, and ran money his way, by his own rules.”
In Buffett’s case, he found that what worked for him as an investor was a synthesis of Graham and Fisher methodologies, which evolved with his own experiences and thinking over time. My takeaway from this is that independent thinking and original ideas, combined with a prudent valuation-centric approach, is more likely to lead to investment success than lazy imitation or mechanical approaches.
It is important for me to be clear in my own mind that in seeking out quality value-type investments, that they represent value for me, in accordance with my investment criteria, and not simply a stable blue-chip stock owned by Buffett, Klarman, Berkowitz, etc., that happens to be trading at an ostensibly low P/E ratio or other valuation metric.
Given the market’s current pricing, quality value businesses are proving very difficult to identify, and extra rigou is necessary to ensure that I am not tempted to compromise strict value criteria and acquire shares of quality businesses at a fully valued price level – an absolutist approach rather than a relative value approach is crucial here. Nevertheless, the continuous, noise-filled nature of modern day market commentary and news flow should intermittently lead to quality businesses being available for purchase at attractive prices below a reasonable and realistic appraisal of their intrinsic value. A rigorous application of the margin of safety principle is therefore required here.
The third category that may offer attractive opportunities for a value investor is what is often termed “special situations.” Businesses in such situations may include companies involved in corporate spinoff programs, mergers and demergers, distressed situations and bankruptcy proceedings. However, there is a distinct complexity to appraising and investing in such situations, which requires a thorough understanding of not just business fundamentals, but also legislation and other areas. As such, I intend to focus on more conventional deep and quality-based value investing for now, while continuing to learn more about the particular nuances of special situation investing area before entering into this arena. For the time being, the intricacies of special situations investing may well lie outside of my circle of competence, but in due course I would hope to learn and take advantage of such investment opportunities.
I also intend to devote my time to identifying those deep value and quality value opportunities that I believe will offer me the best returns while protecting my capital. In due course, I hope to take advantage of any attractive special situations also. But at the outset, my portfolio will contain a concentrated number of my best ideas for deep value and quality value investments, and a sizable cash allocation given current expensive prices. This allocation will enable me to remain flexible and take advantage of new opportunities in the event of a broader market decline.
About the author:
I run Independent Value, my investment blog, where I write about my personal investment portfolio in real-time, as well as share my thoughts on investing and finance. My blog serves as a public record of my investment analysis, decision making process and performance.