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Aetna Inc (NYSE:AET)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Aetna Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

AET' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 8
Current: 7

3
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Aetna Inc was 8. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 665.5 + 548.8 + 594.5 + 232 = $2,041 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1422.2 + 669.1 + 987.4 + 294.1 = $3,373 Mil.
Revenue was 13994.8 + 14509.4 + 14727.8 + 14771.2 = $58,003 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3839.8 + 3669 + 3851.7 + 3731 = $15,092 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(49764.8 + 52119 + 53160.7 + 53025.6 + 53402.1) / 5 = $52294.44 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $49,765 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,852 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,764 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $15,357 Mil.
Net Income was 490.1 + 536 + 518.6 + 368.9 = $1,914 Mil.

Revenue was 9538.9 + 11537.4 + 13035.6 + 13182.7 = $47,295 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2600.1 + 2991.4 + 3262.6 + 3293.1 = $12,147 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(41494.5 + 42517.2 + 49730.3 + 49252.9 + 49764.8) / 5 = $46551.94 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $41,495 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,865 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,612 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,473 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Aetna Inc's current net income (TTM) was 2,041. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Aetna Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 3,373. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=2040.8/49764.8
=0.04100891

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=1913.6/41494.5
=0.04611696

Aetna Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.04100891. Aetna Inc's return on assets of last year was 0.04611696. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Aetna Inc's current net income (TTM) was 2,041. Aetna Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 3,373. ==> 3,373 > 2,041 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=7852/52294.44
=0.15014981

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=7865.3/46551.94
=0.16895751

Aetna Inc's gearing of this year was 0.15014981. Aetna Inc's gearing of last year was 0.16895751. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=11764/15356.5
=0.76605997

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=9611.9/12473
=0.77061653

Aetna Inc's current ratio of this year was 0.76605997. Aetna Inc's current ratio of last year was 0.77061653. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Aetna Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 354.3. Aetna Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 370.3. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=15091.5/58003.2
=0.26018392

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=12147.2/47294.6
=0.25684116

Aetna Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.26018392. Aetna Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.25684116. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=58003.2/49764.8
=1.16554673

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=47294.6/41494.5
=1.13977997

Aetna Inc's asset turnover of this year was 1.16554673. Aetna Inc's asset turnover of last year was 1.13977997. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+1+0+1+1+1
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Aetna Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Aetna Inc Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0110111010
Question 4 1011101111
Question 5 1000010001
Question 6 0010100100
Question 7 1111111101
Question 8 0100011001
Question 9 1111101111
F-score 6675767657

Aetna Inc Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1000011010
Question 4 0100111111
Question 5 0000001111
Question 6 0111100000
Question 7 1110000011
Question 8 0000000011
Question 9 1111111111
F-score 5654556587
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