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Bank of Montreal (NYSE:BMO)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Bank of Montreal has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

BMO' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 1   Max: 6
Current: 6

1
6

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Bank of Montreal was 6. The lowest was 1. And the median was 4.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jan14) TTM:Last Year (Jan13) TTM:
Net Income was 948.416289593 + 1011.43946616 + 1063.40057637 + 925.490196078 = $3,949 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 8388.23529412 + -4561.4871306 + 2847.26224784 + 2532.35294118 = $9,206 Mil.
Revenue was 3730.31674208 + 3944.7092469 + 3842.45917387 + 3816.66666667 = $15,334 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Jan13) was $536,560 Mil.
Total Assets was $536,346 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,605 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 1007.92079208 + 1067.20160481 + 958.669354839 + 1000 = $4,034 Mil.

Revenue was 3992.07920792 + 4188.56569709 + 3909.27419355 + 3919.8019802 = $16,010 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Jan12) was $539,880 Mil.
Total Assets was $536,560 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,024 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Bank of Montreal's current net income was 3,949. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Bank of Montreal's current cash flow from operations was 9,206. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Jan13)
=3948.7465282/536560.39604
=0.00735937

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Jan12)
=4033.79175173/539879.638917
=0.00747165

Bank of Montreal's return on assets of this year was 0.00735937. Bank of Montreal's return on assets of last year was 0.00747165. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

Bank of Montreal's current net income was 3,949. Bank of Montreal's current cash flow from operations was 9,206. ==> 9,206 > 3,949 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 1 if gearing is lower, 0 if it’s higher.

Gearing (This Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=3604.52488688/536345.701357
=0.00672053

Gearing (Last Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=4023.76237624/536560.39604
=0.00749918

Bank of Montreal's gearing of this year was 0.00672053. Bank of Montreal's gearing of last year was 0.00749918. ==> This year is lower. ==> Score 1.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Bank of Montreal's current ratio of this year was . Bank of Montreal's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 1 if there is fewer number of shares in issue this year. Score 0 otherwise.

Bank of Montreal's number of shares in issue this year was 646.7. Bank of Montreal's number of shares in issue last year was 652.6. ==> There is the same number of shares in issue this year, or fewer. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/15334.1518295
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/16009.7210788
=0

Bank of Montreal's gross margin of this year was 0. Bank of Montreal's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Jan13)
=15334.1518295/536560.39604
=0.02857861

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Jan12)
=16009.7210788/539879.638917
=0.02965424

Bank of Montreal's asset turnover of this year was 0.02857861. Bank of Montreal's asset turnover of last year was 0.02965424. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+1+1+0+1+0+0
=5

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Bank of Montreal has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Bank of Montreal Annual Data

Oct04Oct05Oct06Oct07Oct08Oct09Oct10Oct11Oct12Oct13
Q1 1111110111
Q2 1010110111
Q3 1010010110
Q4 0000110011
Q5 0100101011
Q6 0000000000
Q7 0101100000
Q8 0000000000
Q9 0000010110
F-score 3332551464

Bank of Montreal Quarterly Data

Oct11Jan12Apr12Jul12Oct12Jan13Apr13Jul13Oct13Jan14
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111101111
Q3 1111100000
Q4 0111100011
Q5 0001111111
Q6 0000000000
Q7 0000000011
Q8 0000000000
Q9 1111100000
F-score 4556623356
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