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CA Inc (NAS:CA)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

CA Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

CA' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 3   Max: 9
Current: 7

3
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of CA Inc was 9. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep16) TTM:Last Year (Sep15) TTM:
Net Income was 223 + 174 + 198 + 212 = $807 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 343 + 448 + 161 + -58 = $894 Mil.
Revenue was 1034 + 1009 + 999 + 1018 = $4,060 Mil.
Gross Profit was 886 + 859 + 856 + 879 = $3,480 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep15)
to the end of this year (Sep16) was
(10893 + 10857 + 11204 + 10907 + 10687) / 5 = $10909.6 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep15) was $10,893 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,946 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,178 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,408 Mil.
Net Income was 222 + 151 + 212 + 174 = $759 Mil.

Revenue was 1091 + 1023 + 977 + 1005 = $4,096 Mil.
Gross Profit was 933 + 858 + 840 + 857 = $3,488 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep14)
to the end of last year (Sep15) was
(11372 + 10915 + 10973 + 10707 + 10893) / 5 = $10972 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep14) was $11,372 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,649 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,422 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,562 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

CA Inc's current net income (TTM) was 807. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

CA Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 894. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

CA Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.07408427. CA Inc's return on assets of last year was 0.06674288. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

CA Inc's current net income (TTM) was 807. CA Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 894. ==> 894 > 807 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep16)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep15 to Sep16
=1946/10909.6
=0.17837501

Gearing (Last Year: Sep15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep14 to Sep15
=1649/10972
=0.15029165

CA Inc's gearing of this year was 0.17837501. CA Inc's gearing of last year was 0.15029165. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=3178/2408
=1.31976744

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=3422/2562
=1.33567525

CA Inc's current ratio of this year was 1.31976744. CA Inc's current ratio of last year was 1.33567525. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

CA Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 415. CA Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 437. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=3480/4060
=0.85714286

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=3488/4096
=0.8515625

CA Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.85714286. CA Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.8515625. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep15)
=4060/10893
=0.37271642

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep14)
=4096/11372
=0.36018291

CA Inc's asset turnover of this year was 0.37271642. CA Inc's asset turnover of last year was 0.36018291. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+0+0+1+1+1
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

CA Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

CA Inc Annual Data

Mar07Mar08Mar09Mar10Mar11Mar12Mar13Mar14Mar15Mar16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0111111001
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0110110100
Question 6 1101001010
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1101000001
Question 9 1001010001
F-score 7868676557

CA Inc Quarterly Data

Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0000101101
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1100000000
Question 6 1011110000
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 0000000111
Question 9 0000001111
F-score 6555656767
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