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Cambrex Corp (NYSE:CBM)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Cambrex Corp has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

CBM' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 7
Current: 7

3
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Cambrex Corp was 7. The lowest was 3. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 0.982 + 19.667 + 8.769 + 27.885 = $57.3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 24.582 + -12.052 + 28.841 + 23.597 = $65.0 Mil.
Revenue was 66.105 + 97.893 + 81.3 + 129.315 = $374.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 16.578 + 33.415 + 28.406 + 45.399 = $123.8 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(458.037 + 444.66 + 476.07 + 444.332 + 487.072) / 5 = $462.0342 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $458.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $60.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $227.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $98.8 Mil.
Net Income was 11.168 + 2.274 + 3.574 + 8.899 = $25.9 Mil.

Revenue was 74.885 + 62.803 + 77.452 + 103.036 = $318.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 24.749 + 19.251 + 24.966 + 33.938 = $102.9 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(385.731 + 410.518 + 435.543 + 466.445 + 458.037) / 5 = $431.2548 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $385.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $79.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $202.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $97.3 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Cambrex Corp's current net income (TTM) was 57.3. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Cambrex Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 65.0. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=57.303/458.037
=0.12510561

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=25.915/385.731
=0.06718413

Cambrex Corp's return on assets of this year was 0.12510561. Cambrex Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.06718413. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Cambrex Corp's current net income (TTM) was 57.3. Cambrex Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 65.0. ==> 65.0 > 57.3 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=60/462.0342
=0.12986052

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=79.25/431.2548
=0.18376607

Cambrex Corp's gearing of this year was 0.12986052. Cambrex Corp's gearing of last year was 0.18376607. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=227.57/98.779
=2.30382976

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=202.56/97.271
=2.0824295

Cambrex Corp's current ratio of this year was 2.30382976. Cambrex Corp's current ratio of last year was 2.0824295. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Cambrex Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 32.1. Cambrex Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 30.8. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=123.798/374.613
=0.33046904

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=102.904/318.176
=0.32341849

Cambrex Corp's gross margin of this year was 0.33046904. Cambrex Corp's gross margin of last year was 0.32341849. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=374.613/458.037
=0.81786624

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=318.176/385.731
=0.824865

Cambrex Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.81786624. Cambrex Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.824865. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+1+1+0+1+0
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Cambrex Corp has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Cambrex Corp Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 0011111111
Question 2 1101111111
Question 3 0010101101
Question 4 1100111011
Question 5 1110011101
Question 6 0001100011
Question 7 0000000000
Question 8 0010100101
Question 9 0111101110
F-score 3454746657

Cambrex Corp Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111100001
Question 4 1000011111
Question 5 1111011111
Question 6 0000110101
Question 7 0000010000
Question 8 1110000111
Question 9 1111110000
F-score 7665574657
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