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Cliffs Natural Resources Inc (NYSE:CLF)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

CLF' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 2   Max: 8
Current: 5

2
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Cliffs Natural Resources Inc was 8. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep15) TTM:Last Year (Sep14) TTM:
Net Income was -1285.2 + -759.8 + 60.2 + 10.6 = $-1,974 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 254.9 + -228.2 + -20 + 188.7 = $195 Mil.
Revenue was 2280.8 + 446 + 498.1 + 593.2 = $3,818 Mil.
Gross Profit was -178.3 + 80.8 + 57.3 + 55.1 = $15 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep14)
to the end of this year (Sep15) was
(4811.2 + 3164 + 2702.6 + 2609.4 + 2271.5) / 5 = $3111.74 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep14) was $4,811 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,722 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,076 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $670 Mil.
Net Income was 43.3 + -70.3 + 10.9 + -5879.6 = $-5,896 Mil.

Revenue was 1515.8 + 615.5 + 747.7 + 979.7 = $3,859 Mil.
Gross Profit was 294.5 + 190 + 183.5 + 256.2 = $924 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep13)
to the end of last year (Sep14) was
(13566.7 + 13121.9 + 13202.8 + 13102.4 + 4811.2) / 5 = $11561 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep13) was $13,567 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,013 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,361 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,118 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current net income (TTM) was -1,974. ==> Negative ==> Score 0.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 195. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep14)
=-1974.2/4811.2
=-0.41033422

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=-5895.7/13566.7
=-0.43457141

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's return on assets of this year was -0.41033422. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's return on assets of last year was -0.43457141. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current net income (TTM) was -1,974. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 195. ==> 195 > -1,974 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep14 to Sep15
=2721.6/3111.74
=0.8746232

Gearing (Last Year: Sep14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep13 to Sep14
=3012.5/11561
=0.26057434

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's gearing of this year was 0.8746232. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's gearing of last year was 0.26057434. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=1075.9/669.9
=1.60606061

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=1360.6/1118.3
=1.21666816

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current ratio of this year was 1.60606061. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's current ratio of last year was 1.21666816. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 153.2. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 153.1. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=14.9/3818.1
=0.00390246

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=924.2/3858.7
=0.23951072

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.00390246. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.23951072. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep14)
=3818.1/4811.2
=0.7935858

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=3858.7/13566.7
=0.28442436

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's asset turnover of this year was 0.7935858. Cliffs Natural Resources Inc's asset turnover of last year was 0.28442436. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=0+1+1+1+0+1+0+0+1
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
Question 1 1111110100
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0010100101
Question 4 1110111111
Question 5 1011001100
Question 6 1001100111
Question 7 1100000010
Question 8 0010110101
Question 9 0110100101
F-score 6574743846

Cliffs Natural Resources Inc Quarterly Data

Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15
Question 1 0111000000
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0111000011
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1100000000
Question 6 1101011111
Question 7 0001110100
Question 8 0111100001
Question 9 0100000011
F-score 4857443456
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