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EMC Corp (NYSE:EMC)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

EMC Corp has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

EMC' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 4   Max: 9
Current: 5

4
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of EMC Corp was 9. The lowest was 4. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec13) TTM:Last Year (Dec12) TTM:
Net Income was 1022 + 586 + 701 + 580.05 = $2,889 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2190 + 1792 + 1228.204 + 1712.796 = $6,923 Mil.
Revenue was 6682 + 5539 + 5614 + 5387.383 = $23,222 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4224 + 3442 + 3509 + 3297.825 = $14,473 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec12) was $37,962 Mil.
Total Assets was $45,849 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,494 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,278 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $11,799 Mil.
Net Income was 870 + 626 + 650 + 586.842 = $2,733 Mil.

Revenue was 6030 + 5278 + 5311 + 5094.378 = $21,713 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3890 + 3288 + 3347 + 3113.217 = $13,638 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec11) was $34,469 Mil.
Total Assets was $37,962 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,019 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $10,274 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

EMC Corp's current net income was 2,889. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

EMC Corp's current cash flow from operations was 6,923. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Dec12)
=2889.05/37962
=0.07610374

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Dec11)
=2732.842/34469.267
=0.07928344

EMC Corp's return on assets of this year was 0.07610374. EMC Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.07928344. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

EMC Corp's current net income was 2,889. EMC Corp's current cash flow from operations was 6,923. ==> 6,923 > 2,889 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 1 if gearing is lower, 0 if it’s higher.

Gearing (This Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=5494/45849
=0.11982813

Gearing (Last Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=0/37962
=0

EMC Corp's gearing of this year was 0.11982813. EMC Corp's gearing of last year was 0. ==> Last year is lower ==> Score 0.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=17278/11799
=1.46436139

Current Ratio (Last Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=12019/10274
=1.16984621

EMC Corp's current ratio of this year was 1.46436139. EMC Corp's current ratio of last year was 1.16984621. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 1 if there is fewer number of shares in issue this year. Score 0 otherwise.

EMC Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 2112. EMC Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 2203. ==> There is the same number of shares in issue this year, or fewer. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=14472.825/23222.383
=0.62322738

Gross Margin (Last Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=13638.217/21713.378
=0.62810204

EMC Corp's gross margin of this year was 0.62322738. EMC Corp's gross margin of last year was 0.62810204. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Dec12)
=23222.383/37962
=0.61172707

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Dec11)
=21713.378/34469.267
=0.62993443

EMC Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.61172707. EMC Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.62993443. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+1+0+1+1+0+0
=5

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

EMC Corp has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

EMC Corp Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1101001100
Q4 1111111111
Q5 1101111010
Q6 0101010111
Q7 0111110011
Q8 1101101110
Q9 0111001100
F-score 6959667775

EMC Corp Quarterly Data

Sep11Dec11Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1111100000
Q4 1111111111
Q5 1011111000
Q6 0111110111
Q7 0111001111
Q8 1111111110
Q9 1110000000
F-score 7898766665
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