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Express Scripts (NAS:ESRX)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Express Scripts has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

ESRX' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 9
Current: 6

3
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Express Scripts was 9. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Net Income was 426.7 + 501.9 + 328.3 + 515.2 = $1,772 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1039.9 + 2935.1 + 454 + 735.5 = $5,165 Mil.
Revenue was 25915.6 + 25781.4 + 23685 + 25111 = $100,493 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1994.2 + 2061 + 1750.4 + 2007.7 = $7,813 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Jun13)
to the end of this year (Jun14) was
(54581.5 + 54763 + 53548.2 + 52747.1 + 54633.8) / 5 = $54,055 Mil.
Total Assets was $54,634 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $12,166 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,452 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $15,984 Mil.
Net Income was 391.4 + 504.1 + 373 + 543 = $1,812 Mil.

Revenue was 26999.4 + 27410.7 + 26019.9 + 26425 = $106,855 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2134.5 + 2302.9 + 1962.1 + 2117.6 = $8,517 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Jun12)
to the end of last year (Jun13) was
(58058.5 + 57307.7 + 58111.2 + 55585.7 + 54581.5) / 5 = $56,729 Mil.
Total Assets was $54,582 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $13,649 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,303 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $10,618 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by average total assets throughout the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Express Scripts's current net income (ttm) was 1,772. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by average total assets throughout the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Express Scripts's current cash flow from operations (ttm) was 5,165. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Average Total Assets from Jun13 to Jun14
=1772.1/54054.72
=0.03278345

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Average Total Assets from Jun12 to Jun13
=1811.5/56728.92
=0.03193257

Express Scripts's return on assets of this year was 0.03278345. Express Scripts's return on assets of last year was 0.03193257. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

Express Scripts's current net income (ttm) was 1,772. Express Scripts's current cash flow from operations (ttm) was 5,165. ==> 5,165 > 1,772 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Jun14)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=12165.5/54633.8
=0.22267351

Gearing (Last Year: Jun13)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=13648.5/54581.5
=0.25005725

Express Scripts's gearing of this year was 0.22267351. Express Scripts's gearing of last year was 0.25005725. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Jun14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=10452.4/15984.4
=0.65391256

Current Ratio (Last Year: Jun13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=8302.8/10618.3
=0.78193308

Express Scripts's current ratio of this year was 0.65391256. Express Scripts's current ratio of last year was 0.78193308. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Express Scripts's number of shares in issue this year was 766.5. Express Scripts's number of shares in issue last year was 828.4. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=7813.3/100493
=0.07774969

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=8517.1/106855
=0.07970708

Express Scripts's gross margin of this year was 0.07774969. Express Scripts's gross margin of last year was 0.07970708. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by average total assets throughout the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Average Total Assets from Jun13 to Jun14
=100493/54054.72
=1.8590976

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Average Total Assets from Jun12 to Jun13
=106855/56728.92
=1.88360716

Express Scripts's asset turnover of this year was 1.8590976. Express Scripts's asset turnover of last year was 1.88360716. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+1+1+1+0+1+0+0
=6

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Express Scripts has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities, Altman Z-Score, Beneish M-Score


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Express Scripts Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1111100110
Q4 1111111111
Q5 1010110011
Q6 0101010100
Q7 1111100100
Q8 0111010111
Q9 1110101010
F-score 7887764775

Express Scripts Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 0000000111
Q4 1111111111
Q5 0101111111
Q6 1110011000
Q7 1000001111
Q8 1111111000
Q9 0000000000
F-score 6655567666
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