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GuruFocus has detected 5 Warning Signs with GlaxoSmithKline PLC $GSK.
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GlaxoSmithKline PLC (NYSE:GSK)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

GlaxoSmithKline PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

GSK' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 1   Max: 7
Current: 5

1
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of GlaxoSmithKline PLC was 7. The lowest was 1. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Dec16) TTM:Last Year (Dec15) TTM:
Net Income was 401.709401709 + -617.897727273 + 1061.760841 + 320.848938826 = $1,166 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 716.524216524 + 1755.68181818 + 2321.94480946 + 3734.082397 = $8,528 Mil.
Revenue was 8873.21937322 + 9278.40909091 + 9910.64388962 + 9470.66167291 = $37,533 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5834.75783476 + 6261.36363636 + 6592.6412615 + 6339.57553059 = $25,028 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec15)
to the end of this year (Dec16) was
(80008.9820359 + 77605.4131054 + 81856.5340909 + 77249.6714849 + 73759.051186) / 5 = $78095.9303806 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec15) was $80,009 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $18,303 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $20,863 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $23,722 Mil.
Net Income was 12091.180867 + 232.087227414 + 825.153374233 + -529.94011976 = $12,618 Mil.

Revenue was 8403.58744395 + 9171.33956386 + 9397.2392638 + 9410.17964072 = $36,382 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5260.0896861 + 6048.28660436 + 6016.87116564 + 5606.28742515 = $22,932 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec14)
to the end of last year (Dec15) was
(63616.5884194 + 86690.5829596 + 84295.9501558 + 81472.392638 + 80008.9820359) / 5 = $79216.8992418 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec14) was $63,617 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $22,940 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $24,831 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $20,085 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current net income (TTM) was 1,166. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 8,528. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec15)
=1166.42145426/80008.9820359
=0.01457863

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec14)
=12618.4813489/63616.5884194
=0.19835206

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's return on assets of this year was 0.01457863. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's return on assets of last year was 0.19835206. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current net income (TTM) was 1,166. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 8,528. ==> 8,528 > 1,166 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec16)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec15 to Dec16
=18303.3707865/78095.9303806
=0.23437035

Gearing (Last Year: Dec15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec14 to Dec15
=22940.1197605/79216.8992418
=0.28958619

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's gearing of this year was 0.23437035. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's gearing of last year was 0.28958619. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=20862.6716604/23721.5980025
=0.87948003

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=24830.8383234/20085.3293413
=1.23626742

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current ratio of this year was 0.87948003. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's current ratio of last year was 1.23626742. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's number of shares in issue this year was 2454.5. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's number of shares in issue last year was 2444. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=25028.3382632/37532.9340267
=0.66683671

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=22931.5348813/36382.3459123
=0.63029292

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's gross margin of this year was 0.66683671. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's gross margin of last year was 0.63029292. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec15)
=37532.9340267/80008.9820359
=0.46910901

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec14)
=36382.3459123/63616.5884194
=0.5719003

GlaxoSmithKline PLC's asset turnover of this year was 0.46910901. GlaxoSmithKline PLC's asset turnover of last year was 0.5719003. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+1+0+0+1+0
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

GlaxoSmithKline PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

GlaxoSmithKline PLC Annual Data

Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15Dec16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0010101010
Question 4 1111101101
Question 5 0001100111
Question 6 0100001010
Question 7 1110111100
Question 8 0000100101
Question 9 0010100010
F-score 4564836665

GlaxoSmithKline PLC Quarterly Data

Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16Dec16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1011110000
Question 4 1100001111
Question 5 1111111111
Question 6 0011110000
Question 7 1111000100
Question 8 0100000001
Question 9 0000010000
F-score 6666564545
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