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Humana Inc (NYSE:HUM)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Humana Inc has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

HUM' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 2   Max: 8
Current: 5

2
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Humana Inc was 8. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep14) TTM:Last Year (Sep13) TTM:
Net Income was -30 + 368 + 344 + 290 = $972 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -16 + 671 + -200 + 954 = $1,409 Mil.
Revenue was 10187 + 11712 + 12222 + 12238 = $46,359 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep13)
to the end of this year (Sep14) was
(20903 + 20735 + 22566 + 23121 + 24331) / 5 = $22331.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep13) was $20,903 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,826 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 192 + 473 + 420 + 368 = $1,453 Mil.

Revenue was 9557 + 10486 + 10321 + 10319 = $40,683 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep12)
to the end of last year (Sep13) was
(18797 + 19979 + 20974 + 20848 + 20903) / 5 = $20300.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep12) was $18,797 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,603 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Humana Inc's current net income (TTM) was 972. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Humana Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 1,409. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Humana Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.0465005. Humana Inc's return on assets of last year was 0.07729957. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Humana Inc's current net income (TTM) was 972. Humana Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 1,409. ==> 1,409 > 972 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep13 to Sep14
=3826/22331.2
=0.1713298

Gearing (Last Year: Sep13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep12 to Sep13
=2603/20300.2
=0.12822534

Humana Inc's gearing of this year was 0.1713298. Humana Inc's gearing of last year was 0.12822534. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Humana Inc's current ratio of this year was . Humana Inc's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Humana Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 156.2. Humana Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 158.9. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/46359
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/40683
=0

Humana Inc's gross margin of this year was 0. Humana Inc's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep13)
=46359/20903
=2.21781562

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep12)
=40683/18797
=2.16433473

Humana Inc's asset turnover of this year was 2.21781562. Humana Inc's asset turnover of last year was 2.16433473. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+1+0+0+1+0+1
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Humana Inc has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Humana Inc Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1111010100
Q4 1111111111
Q5 0101011101
Q6 1000000000
Q7 0000100111
Q8 1100000000
Q9 0110010000
F-score 6755464645

Humana Inc Quarterly Data

Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1010011111
Q3 0000110000
Q4 1010011111
Q5 1100001110
Q6 0000000000
Q7 1111111111
Q8 0000000000
Q9 0000010111
F-score 5342365665
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