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International Business Machines Corp (NYSE:IBM)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

International Business Machines Corp has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

IBM' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 3   Max: 9
Current: 7

3
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of International Business Machines Corp was 9. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep15) TTM:Last Year (Sep14) TTM:
Net Income was 5483 + 2328 + 3449 + 2950 = $14,210 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 6059 + 3610 + 3884 + 4235 = $17,788 Mil.
Revenue was 24113 + 19590 + 20813 + 19280 = $83,796 Mil.
Gross Profit was 12862 + 9452 + 10390 + 9436 = $42,140 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep14)
to the end of this year (Sep15) was
(118911 + 117532 + 112037 + 112729 + 108649) / 5 = $113971.6 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep14) was $118,911 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $32,122 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $42,112 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $33,732 Mil.
Net Income was 6184 + 2384 + 4137 + 18 = $12,723 Mil.

Revenue was 27385 + 22236 + 24047 + 22397 = $96,065 Mil.
Gross Profit was 14337 + 10627 + 12044 + 10874 = $47,882 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep13)
to the end of last year (Sep14) was
(117845 + 126223 + 122646 + 124314 + 118911) / 5 = $121987.8 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep13) was $117,845 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $32,821 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $47,164 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $42,306 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

International Business Machines Corp's current net income (TTM) was 14,210. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

International Business Machines Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 17,788. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep14)
=14210/118911
=0.11950114

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=12723/117845
=0.10796385

International Business Machines Corp's return on assets of this year was 0.11950114. International Business Machines Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.10796385. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

International Business Machines Corp's current net income (TTM) was 14,210. International Business Machines Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 17,788. ==> 17,788 > 14,210 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep14 to Sep15
=32122/113971.6
=0.28184214

Gearing (Last Year: Sep14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep13 to Sep14
=32821/121987.8
=0.2690515

International Business Machines Corp's gearing of this year was 0.28184214. International Business Machines Corp's gearing of last year was 0.2690515. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=42112/33732
=1.24842879

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=47164/42306
=1.11483005

International Business Machines Corp's current ratio of this year was 1.24842879. International Business Machines Corp's current ratio of last year was 1.11483005. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

International Business Machines Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 979. International Business Machines Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 997.7. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=42140/83796
=0.50288797

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=47882/96065
=0.49843335

International Business Machines Corp's gross margin of this year was 0.50288797. International Business Machines Corp's gross margin of last year was 0.49843335. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep14)
=83796/118911
=0.70469511

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=96065/117845
=0.81518096

International Business Machines Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.70469511. International Business Machines Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.81518096. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+0+1+1+1+0
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

International Business Machines Corp has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

International Business Machines Corp Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111111001
Question 4 1111111110
Question 5 1010110000
Question 6 0101010100
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111110
Question 9 1101110000
F-score 8878896654

International Business Machines Corp Quarterly Data

Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0001000011
Question 4 1111111110
Question 5 0000001000
Question 6 0110001110
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111110
Question 9 0000000000
F-score 5666557674
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