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Lee Enterprises Inc (NYSE:LEE)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Lee Enterprises Inc has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

LEE' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 9
Current: 6

3
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Lee Enterprises Inc was 9. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 1.486 + -9.746 + 3.163 + 9.753 = $4.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 22.752 + 34.838 + 12.492 + 22.29 = $92.4 Mil.
Revenue was 154.093 + 163.125 + 162.094 + 176.154 = $655.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 144.759 + 153.901 + 153.22 + 167.308 = $619.2 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(820.236 + 797.282 + 828.17 + 811.275 + 809.327) / 5 = $813.258 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $820.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $756.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $103.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $116.0 Mil.
Net Income was -5.995 + 1.795 + -88.689 + 11.892 = $-81.0 Mil.

Revenue was 160.603 + 167.019 + 162.463 + 177.385 = $667.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 149.891 + 156.548 + 152.339 + 166.823 = $625.6 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(1043.505 + 1010.822 + 989.03 + 827.705 + 820.236) / 5 = $938.2596 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $1,043.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $812.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $105.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $95.9 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Lee Enterprises Inc's current net income (TTM) was 4.7. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Lee Enterprises Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 92.4. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=4.656/820.236
=0.00567642

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=-80.997/1043.505
=-0.07762014

Lee Enterprises Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.00567642. Lee Enterprises Inc's return on assets of last year was -0.07762014. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Lee Enterprises Inc's current net income (TTM) was 4.7. Lee Enterprises Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 92.4. ==> 92.4 > 4.7 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=756.3/813.258
=0.92996319

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=812.109/938.2596
=0.8655483

Lee Enterprises Inc's gearing of this year was 0.92996319. Lee Enterprises Inc's gearing of last year was 0.8655483. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=103.61/115.993
=0.89324356

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=105.763/95.879
=1.10308827

Lee Enterprises Inc's current ratio of this year was 0.89324356. Lee Enterprises Inc's current ratio of last year was 1.10308827. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Lee Enterprises Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 54. Lee Enterprises Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 53.3. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=619.188/655.466
=0.94465312

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=625.601/667.47
=0.93727209

Lee Enterprises Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.94465312. Lee Enterprises Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.93727209. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=655.466/820.236
=0.79911879

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=667.47/1043.505
=0.63964236

Lee Enterprises Inc's asset turnover of this year was 0.79911879. Lee Enterprises Inc's asset turnover of last year was 0.63964236. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+0+0+0+1+1
=6

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Lee Enterprises Inc has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Lee Enterprises Inc Annual Data

Sep05Sep06Sep07Sep08Sep09Sep10Sep11Sep12Sep13Sep14
Question 1 1110010001
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0010110101
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0111001000
Question 6 1000110100
Question 7 0001101000
Question 8 0001110111
Question 9 1010111111
F-score 5465775646

Lee Enterprises Inc Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 0011000011
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111000011
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0000000000
Question 6 1011011000
Question 7 0000000000
Question 8 1111111111
Question 9 1111111111
F-score 6577455466
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