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Southwest Airlines Co (NYSE:LUV)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Southwest Airlines Co has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

LUV' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 3   Max: 8
Current: 6

3
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Southwest Airlines Co was 8. The lowest was 3. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Dec16) TTM:Last Year (Dec15) TTM:
Net Income was 511 + 820 + 388 + 522 = $2,241 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1616 + 1112 + 856 + 709 = $4,293 Mil.
Revenue was 4826 + 5384 + 5139 + 5075 = $20,424 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3351 + 3833 + 3577 + 3532 = $14,293 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec15)
to the end of this year (Dec16) was
(21312 + 22241 + 22447 + 23045 + 23286) / 5 = $22466.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec15) was $21,312 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,821 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,498 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,844 Mil.
Net Income was 453 + 608 + 584 + 536 = $2,181 Mil.

Revenue was 4414 + 5111 + 5318 + 4977 = $19,820 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2963 + 3508 + 3760 + 3565 = $13,796 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec14)
to the end of last year (Dec15) was
(19723 + 21163 + 21075 + 21159 + 21312) / 5 = $20886.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec14) was $19,723 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,541 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,024 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,406 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Southwest Airlines Co's current net income (TTM) was 2,241. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Southwest Airlines Co's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 4,293. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Southwest Airlines Co's return on assets of this year was 0.10515203. Southwest Airlines Co's return on assets of last year was 0.11058155. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Southwest Airlines Co's current net income (TTM) was 2,241. Southwest Airlines Co's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 4,293. ==> 4,293 > 2,241 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec16)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec15 to Dec16
=2821/22466.2
=0.12556641

Gearing (Last Year: Dec15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec14 to Dec15
=2541/20886.4
=0.12165811

Southwest Airlines Co's gearing of this year was 0.12556641. Southwest Airlines Co's gearing of last year was 0.12165811. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=4498/6844
=0.657218

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=4024/7406
=0.54334324

Southwest Airlines Co's current ratio of this year was 0.657218. Southwest Airlines Co's current ratio of last year was 0.54334324. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Southwest Airlines Co's number of shares in issue this year was 633. Southwest Airlines Co's number of shares in issue last year was 669. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=14293/20424
=0.69981394

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=13796/19820
=0.69606458

Southwest Airlines Co's gross margin of this year was 0.69981394. Southwest Airlines Co's gross margin of last year was 0.69606458. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec15)
=20424/21312
=0.95833333

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec14)
=19820/19723
=1.00491812

Southwest Airlines Co's asset turnover of this year was 0.95833333. Southwest Airlines Co's asset turnover of last year was 1.00491812. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+0+1+1+1+0
=6

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Southwest Airlines Co has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Southwest Airlines Co Annual Data

Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15Dec16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1011111111
Question 3 1001011110
Question 4 1011111111
Question 5 0001011010
Question 6 1111000001
Question 7 1100011111
Question 8 0001001111
Question 9 1011101110
F-score 7358468786

Southwest Airlines Co Quarterly Data

Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16Dec16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111111110
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1011111010
Question 6 0000000001
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111111
Question 9 1110011110
F-score 8787788786
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