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Lloyds Banking Group PLC (NYSE:LYG)
Piotroski F-Score
4 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Lloyds Banking Group PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

LYG' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 1   Max: 6
Current: 4

1
6

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Lloyds Banking Group PLC was 6. The lowest was 1. And the median was 4.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 1906.97674419 + -817.258883249 + 1087.94788274 + 123.630672926 = $2,301 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 0 + 12893.4010152 + 0 + 16201.8779343 = $29,095 Mil.
Revenue was 13051.4950166 + 11482.2335025 + 11353.4201954 + 15148.6697966 = $51,036 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(1378690.67103 + 1399352.15947 + 1427986.46362 + 1394731.27036 + 1337865.41471) / 5 = $1387725.19584 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $1,378,691 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $161,822 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 2300.15082956 + 54.1795665635 + -2073.13195548 + -1790.50736498 = $-1,509 Mil.

Revenue was 27859.7285068 + 6704.33436533 + 10540.5405405 + 16265.1391162 = $61,370 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(1509242.32633 + 1353736.04827 + 1357243.03406 + 1383721.7806 + 1378690.67103) / 5 = $1396526.77206 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $1,509,242 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $197,365 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current net income (TTM) was 2,301. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 29,095. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=2301.2964166/1378690.67103
=0.00166919

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=-1509.30892433/1509242.32633
=-0.00100004

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's return on assets of this year was 0.00166919. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's return on assets of last year was -0.00100004. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current net income (TTM) was 2,301. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 29,095. ==> 29,095 > 2,301 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=161821.596244/1387725.19584
=0.11660925

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=197364.97545/1396526.77206
=0.14132559

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's gearing of this year was 0.11660925. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's gearing of last year was 0.14132559. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current ratio of this year was . Lloyds Banking Group PLC's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's number of shares in issue this year was 18111.8. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's number of shares in issue last year was 17752.3. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/51035.8185111
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/61369.7425289
=0

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's gross margin of this year was 0. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=51035.8185111/1378690.67103
=0.0370176

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=61369.7425289/1509242.32633
=0.04066262

Lloyds Banking Group PLC's asset turnover of this year was 0.0370176. Lloyds Banking Group PLC's asset turnover of last year was 0.04066262. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+1+0+0+0+0
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Lloyds Banking Group PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Lloyds Banking Group PLC Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Jun08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Jun14
Question 1 111000
Question 2 111110
Question 3 010101
Question 4 011110
Question 5 010011
Question 6 000000
Question 7 001000
Question 8 000000
Question 9 000011
F-score 254343

Lloyds Banking Group PLC Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 001000011
Question 2 110000001
Question 3 011110011
Question 4 110000001
Question 5 111111111
Question 6 000000000
Question 7 010101010
Question 8 000000000
Question 9 111000000
F-score 5474332145
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