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3M Co (NYSE:MMM)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

3M Co has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

MMM' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 4   Max: 8
Current: 7

4
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of 3M Co was 8. The lowest was 4. And the median was 7.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec15) TTM:Last Year (Dec14) TTM:
Net Income was 1199 + 1300 + 1296 + 1038 = $4,833 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1080 + 1338 + 1664 + 2338 = $6,420 Mil.
Revenue was 7578 + 7686 + 7712 + 7298 = $30,274 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3757 + 3828 + 3835 + 3471 = $14,891 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec14)
to the end of this year (Dec15) was
(31209 + 30643 + 31388 + 33258 + 32718) / 5 = $31843.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec14) was $31,209 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,799 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,986 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7,118 Mil.
Net Income was 1207 + 1267 + 1303 + 1179 = $4,956 Mil.

Revenue was 7831 + 8134 + 8137 + 7719 = $31,821 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3800 + 3950 + 3932 + 3692 = $15,374 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec13)
to the end of last year (Dec14) was
(33550 + 33547 + 33970 + 32776 + 31209) / 5 = $33010.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec13) was $33,550 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,764 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12,303 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,964 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

3M Co's current net income (TTM) was 4,833. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

3M Co's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 6,420. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

3M Co's return on assets of this year was 0.15485918. 3M Co's return on assets of last year was 0.14771982. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

3M Co's current net income (TTM) was 4,833. 3M Co's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 6,420. ==> 6,420 > 4,833 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec14 to Dec15
=8799/31843.2
=0.27632273

Gearing (Last Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=6764/33010.4
=0.20490512

3M Co's gearing of this year was 0.27632273. 3M Co's gearing of last year was 0.20490512. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=10986/7118
=1.54341107

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=12303/5964
=2.06287726

3M Co's current ratio of this year was 1.54341107. 3M Co's current ratio of last year was 2.06287726. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

3M Co's number of shares in issue this year was 637.2. 3M Co's number of shares in issue last year was 662. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=14891/30274
=0.49187422

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=15374/31821
=0.48314006

3M Co's gross margin of this year was 0.49187422. 3M Co's gross margin of last year was 0.48314006. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec14)
=30274/31209
=0.97004069

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec13)
=31821/33550
=0.94846498

3M Co's asset turnover of this year was 0.97004069. 3M Co's asset turnover of last year was 0.94846498. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+0+0+1+1+1
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

3M Co has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

3M Co Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1100100011
Question 4 0111111111
Question 5 1000110100
Question 6 0101010010
Question 7 1111011111
Question 8 0001101111
Question 9 1100110011
F-score 6746775687

3M Co Quarterly Data

Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0111111111
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1100000000
Question 6 0000111100
Question 7 1111111111
Question 8 1111111111
Question 9 0011110011
F-score 6777887777
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