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Frontline Ltd (OSTO:FROo)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Frontline Ltd has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

OSTO:FROO' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 2   Max: 8
Current: 5

2
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Frontline Ltd was 8. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep14) TTM:Last Year (Sep13) TTM:
Net Income was -79.9447852761 + -72.3652694611 + -474.121212121 + -379.917197452 = Kr-1,006 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 38.226993865 + 126.658682635 + -2.6 + 112.929936306 = Kr275 Mil.
Revenue was 880.803680982 + 1017.95209581 + 721.042424242 + 863.815286624 = Kr3,484 Mil.
Gross Profit was 188.404907975 + 396.676646707 + 143.951515152 + 213.197452229 = Kr942 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep13)
to the end of this year (Sep14) was
(8387.75595238 + 8390.21472393 + 8228.02994012 + 7586.67878788 + 6611.68789809) / 5 = Kr7840.87346048 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep13) was Kr8,388 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was Kr5,313 Mil.
Total Current Assets was Kr1,642 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was Kr2,066 Mil.
Net Income was -93.0674157303 + -108.410404624 + -707.511764706 + -216.94047619 = Kr-1,126 Mil.

Revenue was 858.320224719 + 727.76300578 + 713.070588235 + 752.94047619 = Kr3,052 Mil.
Gross Profit was 203.174157303 + 143.947976879 + 82.3294117647 + 197.535714286 = Kr627 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep12)
to the end of last year (Sep13) was
(9917.91954023 + 9484.38764045 + 9154.13294798 + 8636.40588235 + 8387.75595238) / 5 = Kr9116.12039268 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep12) was Kr9,918 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was Kr7,828 Mil.
Total Current Assets was Kr1,653 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was Kr803 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Frontline Ltd's current net income (TTM) was -1,006. ==> Negative ==> Score 0.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Frontline Ltd's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 275. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep13)
=-1006.34846431/8387.75595238
=-0.11997827

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep12)
=-1125.93006125/9917.91954023
=-0.11352482

Frontline Ltd's return on assets of this year was -0.11997827. Frontline Ltd's return on assets of last year was -0.11352482. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Frontline Ltd's current net income (TTM) was -1,006. Frontline Ltd's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 275. ==> 275 > -1,006 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep13 to Sep14
=5312.86624204/7840.87346048
=0.67758602

Gearing (Last Year: Sep13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep12 to Sep13
=7827.57142857/9116.12039268
=0.85865161

Frontline Ltd's gearing of this year was 0.67758602. Frontline Ltd's gearing of last year was 0.85865161. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=1642.24840764/2066.01273885
=0.79488784

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=1652.55357143/802.892857143
=2.05824919

Frontline Ltd's current ratio of this year was 0.79488784. Frontline Ltd's current ratio of last year was 2.05824919. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Frontline Ltd's number of shares in issue this year was 99.3. Frontline Ltd's number of shares in issue last year was 78.8. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=942.230522063/3483.61348766
=0.27047505

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=626.987260232/3052.09429493
=0.20542854

Frontline Ltd's gross margin of this year was 0.27047505. Frontline Ltd's gross margin of last year was 0.20542854. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep13)
=3483.61348766/8387.75595238
=0.41532127

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep12)
=3052.09429493/9917.91954023
=0.30773534

Frontline Ltd's asset turnover of this year was 0.41532127. Frontline Ltd's asset turnover of last year was 0.30773534. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=0+1+0+1+1+0+0+1+1
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Frontline Ltd has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Frontline Ltd Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111000
Q2 1111111110
Q3 1001101010
Q4 0110111111
Q5 1011010100
Q6 0000010100
Q7 1010000110
Q8 1001100000
Q9 1000101011
F-score 7355655552

Frontline Ltd Quarterly Data

Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14
Q1 0000000000
Q2 1110000111
Q3 0011110010
Q4 1111111111
Q5 0000000011
Q6 1100010000
Q7 0111000000
Q8 0000000111
Q9 0011111111
F-score 4454342465
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