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Proassurance Corp (NYSE:PRA)
Piotroski F-Score
4 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Proassurance Corp has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

PRA' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 2   Max: 7
Current: 4

2
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Proassurance Corp was 7. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Net Income was 63.357 + 70.865 + 46.731 + 49.942 = $230.9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 36.233 + 14.641 + 30.435 + -1.301 = $80.0 Mil.
Revenue was 181.486 + 192.913 + 208.051 + 222.447 = $804.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Jun13)
to the end of this year (Jun14) was
(5112.045 + 4963.832 + 5150.891 + 5405.504 + 5397.694) / 5 = $5,206.0 Mil.
Total Assets as of Jun13 was $5,112.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $250.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 60.106 + 101.266 + 112.85 + 50.451 = $324.7 Mil.

Revenue was 175.994 + 195.419 + 194.974 + 170.805 = $737.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Jun12)
to the end of last year (Jun13) was
(4995.759 + 4972.666 + 4876.578 + 5218.746 + 5112.045) / 5 = $5,035.2 Mil.
Total Assets as of Jun12 was $4,995.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $125.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0.0 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by beginning of the year total assets.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Proassurance Corp's current net income (ttm) was 230.9. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by beginning of the year total assets.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Proassurance Corp's current cash flow from operations (ttm) was 80.0. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Beginning of This Year Total Assets (Jun13)
=230.895/5112.045
=0.04516686

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Beginning of Last Year Total Assets (Jun12)
=324.673/4995.759
=0.06498972

Proassurance Corp's return on assets of this year was 0.04516686. Proassurance Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.06498972. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

Proassurance Corp's current net income (ttm) was 230.9. Proassurance Corp's current cash flow from operations (ttm) was 80.0. ==> 80.0 =< 230.9 ==> CFROA =< ROA ==> Score 0.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Jun14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Jun13 to Jun14
=250/5205.9932
=0.04802158

Gearing (Last Year: Jun13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Jun12 to Jun13
=125/5035.1588
=0.02482543

Proassurance Corp's gearing of this year was 0.04802158. Proassurance Corp's gearing of last year was 0.02482543. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Jun14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year: Jun13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Proassurance Corp's current ratio of this year was . Proassurance Corp's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Proassurance Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 59.7. Proassurance Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 62. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/804.897
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/737.192
=0

Proassurance Corp's gross margin of this year was 0. Proassurance Corp's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by begining of the year total assets) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Beginning of This Year Total Assets (Jun13)
=804.897/5112.045
=0.15745108

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Beginning of Last Year Total Assets (Jun12)
=737.192/4995.759
=0.14756356

Proassurance Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.15745108. Proassurance Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.14756356. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+0+0+0+1+0+1
=4

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Proassurance Corp has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities, Altman Z-Score, Beneish M-Score


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Proassurance Corp Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1110110101
Q4 1101000000
Q5 0111101100
Q6 0000000000
Q7 0000111100
Q8 0000000000
Q9 1000010001
F-score 5544554524

Proassurance Corp Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
Q1 1111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1110111100
Q4 0000000000
Q5 1110001000
Q6 0000000000
Q7 1000000011
Q8 0000000000
Q9 0000011101
F-score 5442345434
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