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PS Business Parks Inc (NYSE:PSB)
Piotroski F-Score
7 (As of Today)

Good Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 7 is 7, indicating very healthy situation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

PS Business Parks Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.

PSB' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 8
Current: 7

3
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of PS Business Parks Inc was 8. The lowest was 3. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 25.098 + 24.981 + 26.42 + 97.472 = $174.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 55.328 + 61.182 + 62.448 + 48.813 = $227.8 Mil.
Revenue was 95.487 + 94.151 + 95.791 + 91.486 = $376.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 62.043 + 62.616 + 62.689 + 62.196 = $249.5 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(2238.559 + 2234.205 + 2231.476 + 2242.01 + 2227.114) / 5 = $2234.6728 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $2,238.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $250.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $181.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $68.9 Mil.
Net Income was 22.423 + 23.863 + 24.151 + 32.755 = $103.2 Mil.

Revenue was 88.278 + 88.087 + 89.934 + 93.586 = $359.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 58.894 + 59.367 + 60.033 + 66.76 = $245.1 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(2151.817 + 2126.691 + 2126.28 + 2136.025 + 2238.559) / 5 = $2155.8744 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $2,151.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $250.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $62.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $73.9 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

PS Business Parks Inc's current net income (TTM) was 174.0. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

PS Business Parks Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 227.8. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=173.971/2238.559
=0.07771562

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=103.192/2151.817
=0.04795575

PS Business Parks Inc's return on assets of this year was 0.07771562. PS Business Parks Inc's return on assets of last year was 0.04795575. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

PS Business Parks Inc's current net income (TTM) was 174.0. PS Business Parks Inc's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 227.8. ==> 227.8 > 174.0 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=250/2234.6728
=0.1118732

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=250/2155.8744
=0.11596223

PS Business Parks Inc's gearing of this year was 0.1118732. PS Business Parks Inc's gearing of last year was 0.11596223. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=181.355/68.905
=2.63195704

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=62.632/73.919
=0.84730583

PS Business Parks Inc's current ratio of this year was 2.63195704. PS Business Parks Inc's current ratio of last year was 0.84730583. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

PS Business Parks Inc's number of shares in issue this year was 27. PS Business Parks Inc's number of shares in issue last year was 26. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=249.544/376.915
=0.6620697

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=245.054/359.885
=0.68092307

PS Business Parks Inc's gross margin of this year was 0.6620697. PS Business Parks Inc's gross margin of last year was 0.68092307. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=376.915/2238.559
=0.16837394

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=359.885/2151.817
=0.16724703

PS Business Parks Inc's asset turnover of this year was 0.16837394. PS Business Parks Inc's asset turnover of last year was 0.16724703. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+1+1+1+1+0+0+1
=7

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

PS Business Parks Inc has an F-score of 7. It is a good or high score, which usually indicates a very healthy situation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

PS Business Parks Inc Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1010111011
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0011000111
Question 6 0001100111
Question 7 0111001100
Question 8 0001000110
Question 9 1111001011
F-score 5578546787

PS Business Parks Inc Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0000011111
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0111111111
Question 6 1111011111
Question 7 1000000000
Question 8 0110111100
Question 9 1000011111
F-score 6665588877
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