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Royal Dutch Shell PLC (NYSE:RDS.A)
Piotroski F-Score
5 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Royal Dutch Shell PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

RDS.A' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 4   Max: 7
Current: 5

4
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Royal Dutch Shell PLC was 7. The lowest was 4. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Dec14) TTM:Last Year (Dec13) TTM:
Net Income was 4509 + 5307 + 4463 + 595 = $14,874 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 13984 + 8641 + 12811 + 9608 = $45,044 Mil.
Revenue was 112079 + 115274 + 109825 + 94166 = $431,344 Mil.
Gross Profit was 21065 + 22139 + 17763 + 13061 = $74,028 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Dec13)
to the end of this year (Dec14) was
(357512 + 366593 + 370716 + 359411 + 353116) / 5 = $361469.6 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Dec13) was $357,512 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $38,332 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $99,778 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $86,212 Mil.
Net Income was 8176 + 1737 + 4677 + 1781 = $16,371 Mil.

Revenue was 115514 + 114348 + 118258 + 111479 = $459,599 Mil.
Gross Profit was 22453 + 18447 + 19000 + 18114 = $78,014 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Dec12)
to the end of last year (Dec13) was
(360325 + 356994 + 345508 + 354613 + 357512) / 5 = $354990.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Dec12) was $360,325 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $36,218 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $103,343 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $93,258 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current net income (TTM) was 14,874. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 45,044. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=14874/357512
=0.0416042

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=16371/360325
=0.04543398

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's return on assets of this year was 0.0416042. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's return on assets of last year was 0.04543398. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current net income (TTM) was 14,874. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 45,044. ==> 45,044 > 14,874 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Dec14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec13 to Dec14
=38332/361469.6
=0.10604488

Gearing (Last Year: Dec13)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Dec12 to Dec13
=36218/354990.4
=0.10202529

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's gearing of this year was 0.10604488. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's gearing of last year was 0.10202529. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Dec14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=99778/86212
=1.15735628

Current Ratio (Last Year: Dec13)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=103343/93258
=1.10814086

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current ratio of this year was 1.15735628. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's current ratio of last year was 1.10814086. ==> This year's current ratio is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's number of shares in issue this year was 3150.5. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's number of shares in issue last year was 3137.6. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=74028/431344
=0.17162172

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=78014/459599
=0.16974362

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's gross margin of this year was 0.17162172. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's gross margin of last year was 0.16974362. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Dec13)
=431344/357512
=1.20651614

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Dec12)
=459599/360325
=1.27551238

Royal Dutch Shell PLC's asset turnover of this year was 1.20651614. Royal Dutch Shell PLC's asset turnover of last year was 1.27551238. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+0+1+0+1+0
=5

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Royal Dutch Shell PLC has an F-score of 5 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1010011000
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1000001100
Question 6 1110101101
Question 7 1111100000
Question 8 1001100001
Question 9 1011011000
F-score 9576657535

Royal Dutch Shell PLC Quarterly Data

Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0000000000
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1111000000
Question 6 0100000111
Question 7 0000111000
Question 8 0011000011
Question 9 0000000000
F-score 4555444455
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