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Total SA (NYSE:TOT)
Piotroski F-Score
4 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Total SA has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

TOT' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 2   Max: 9
Current: 4

2
9

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Total SA was 9. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep15) TTM:Last Year (Sep14) TTM:
Net Income was -5658 + 2663 + 2971 + 1079 = $1,055 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 7354 + 4387 + 4732 + 5989 = $22,462 Mil.
Revenue was 46734 + 36963 + 39269 + 34897 = $157,863 Mil.
Gross Profit was 11090 + 13257 + 12916 + 10657 = $47,920 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep14)
to the end of this year (Sep15) was
(246576 + 229798 + 227921 + 234476 + 229125) / 5 = $233579.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep14) was $246,576 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $42,873 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $75,221 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $52,890 Mil.
Net Income was 2234 + 3335 + 3104 + 3463 = $12,136 Mil.

Revenue was 58767 + 54855 + 56207 + 54222 = $224,051 Mil.
Gross Profit was 16775 + 16523 + 15836 + 15594 = $64,728 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep13)
to the end of last year (Sep14) was
(230346 + 239223 + 243392 + 248770 + 246576) / 5 = $241661.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep13) was $230,346 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $43,242 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $88,021 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $61,073 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Total SA's current net income (TTM) was 1,055. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Total SA's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 22,462. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=12136/230346
=0.05268596

Total SA's return on assets of this year was 0.0042786. Total SA's return on assets of last year was 0.05268596. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Total SA's current net income (TTM) was 1,055. Total SA's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 22,462. ==> 22,462 > 1,055 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep14 to Sep15
=42873/233579.2
=0.18354802

Gearing (Last Year: Sep14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep13 to Sep14
=43242/241661.4
=0.17893631

Total SA's gearing of this year was 0.18354802. Total SA's gearing of last year was 0.17893631. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=75221/52890
=1.42221592

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=88021/61073
=1.44124245

Total SA's current ratio of this year was 1.42221592. Total SA's current ratio of last year was 1.44124245. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Total SA's number of shares in issue this year was 2295. Total SA's number of shares in issue last year was 2279. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=47920/157863
=0.30355435

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=64728/224051
=0.28889851

Total SA's gross margin of this year was 0.30355435. Total SA's gross margin of last year was 0.28889851. ==> This year's gross margin is higher. ==> Score 1.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep14)
=157863/246576
=0.64022046

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep13)
=224051/230346
=0.97267155

Total SA's asset turnover of this year was 0.64022046. Total SA's asset turnover of last year was 0.97267155. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+0+0+0+1+0
=4

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Total SA has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Total SA Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0010011000
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0001011100
Question 6 1011100101
Question 7 1111100000
Question 8 0110100000
Question 9 1110011000
F-score 6686666534

Total SA Quarterly Data

Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0001000000
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1000000000
Question 6 1101101110
Question 7 0000000000
Question 8 1000000011
Question 9 1000000000
F-score 7435434454
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