Switch to:
Unum Group (NYSE:UNM)
Piotroski F-Score
4 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Unum Group has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

UNM' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 2   Max: 7
Current: 4

2
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Unum Group was 7. The lowest was 2. And the median was 4.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar14) TTM:Last Year (Mar13) TTM:
Net Income was 228.9 + 221.2 + 205.7 + 218.6 = $874 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 346.7 + 322 + 261.2 + 183.2 = $1,113 Mil.
Revenue was 2611.1 + 2586.2 + 2540.9 + 2601.9 = $10,340 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Mar13) was $61,611 Mil.
Total Assets was $61,079 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,948 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 212.6 + 233.9 + 230.2 + 216.4 = $893 Mil.

Revenue was 2624.8 + 2658.2 + 2628 + 2617.9 = $10,529 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Mar12) was $59,572 Mil.
Total Assets was $61,611 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,674 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Unum Group's current net income was 874. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Unum Group's current cash flow from operations was 1,113. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Mar13)
=874.4/61611.4
=0.01419218

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Mar12)
=893.1/59571.8
=0.01499199

Unum Group's return on assets of this year was 0.01419218. Unum Group's return on assets of last year was 0.01499199. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

Unum Group's current net income was 874. Unum Group's current cash flow from operations was 1,113. ==> 1,113 > 874 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 1 if gearing is lower, 0 if it’s higher.

Gearing (This Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=2948.2/61078.6
=0.04826895

Gearing (Last Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=2673.9/61611.4
=0.04339944

Unum Group's gearing of this year was 0.04826895. Unum Group's gearing of last year was 0.04339944. ==> Last year is lower ==> Score 0.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Unum Group's current ratio of this year was . Unum Group's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 1 if there is fewer number of shares in issue this year. Score 0 otherwise.

Unum Group's number of shares in issue this year was 260.7. Unum Group's number of shares in issue last year was 270.4. ==> There is the same number of shares in issue this year, or fewer. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/10340.1
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/10528.9
=0

Unum Group's gross margin of this year was 0. Unum Group's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Mar13)
=10340.1/61611.4
=0.16782771

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Mar12)
=10528.9/59571.8
=0.17674302

Unum Group's asset turnover of this year was 0.16782771. Unum Group's asset turnover of last year was 0.17674302. ==> Last year's asset turnover is higher ==> Score 0.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+0+1+0+0+1+0+0
=4

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Unum Group has an F-score of 4 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Unum Group Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 0111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1101010010
Q4 1111111111
Q5 0011101101
Q6 0000000000
Q7 0000111111
Q8 0000000000
Q9 0000010000
F-score 3445565555

Unum Group Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Dec14
Q1 111111111
Q2 111111111
Q3 000111100
Q4 111111111
Q5 110000110
Q6 000000000
Q7 011111111
Q8 000000000
Q9 001000000
F-score 4555556540
Get WordPress Plugins for easy affiliate links on Stock Tickers and Guru Names | Earn affiliate commissions by embedding GuruFocus Charts
GuruFocus Affiliate Program: Earn up to $400 per referral. ( Learn More)
Free 7-day Trial
FEEDBACK
Email Hide