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Unum Group (NYSE:UNM)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 8 or 9
Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Unum Group has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

UNM' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 2   Max: 7
Current: 6

2
7

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Unum Group was 7. The lowest was 2. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Net Income was 242.5 + 228.9 + 221.2 + 205.7 = $898 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 379.1 + 346.7 + 322 + 261.2 = $1,309 Mil.
Revenue was 2653.5 + 2611.1 + 2586.2 + 2540.9 = $10,392 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Jun13) was $59,366 Mil.
Total Assets was $62,218 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,792 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 218.6 + 212.6 + 233.9 + 230.2 = $895 Mil.

Revenue was 2601.9 + 2624.8 + 2658.2 + 2628 = $10,513 Mil.
Gross Profit was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Jun12) was $60,679 Mil.
Total Assets was $59,366 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,644 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.

Profitability

Q1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Unum Group's current net income was 898. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Unum Group's current cash flow from operations was 1,309. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Q3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Jun13)
=898.3/59366.2
=0.01513151

ROA (Last Year)=Net Income/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Jun12)
=895.3/60678.7
=0.01475477

Unum Group's return on assets of this year was 0.01513151. Unum Group's return on assets of last year was 0.01475477. ==> This year is higher. ==> Score 1.

Q4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA =< ROA.

Unum Group's current net income was 898. Unum Group's current cash flow from operations was 1,309. ==> 1,309 > 898 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Q5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=2792/62218.1
=0.0448744

Gearing (Last Year)=Long-Term Debt/Total Assets
=2644/59366.2
=0.04453713

Unum Group's gearing of this year was 0.0448744. Unum Group's gearing of last year was 0.04453713. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Q6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Current Ratio (Last Year)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=0/0
=

Unum Group's current ratio of this year was . Unum Group's current ratio of last year was . ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Q7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Unum Group's number of shares in issue this year was 257.9. Unum Group's number of shares in issue last year was 266.7. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Q8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/10391.7
=0

Gross Margin (Last Year)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=0/10512.9
=0

Unum Group's gross margin of this year was 0. Unum Group's gross margin of last year was 0. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Q9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of this year (Jun13)
=10391.7/59366.2
=0.17504405

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue/Total Assets at the beginning of last year (Jun12)
=10512.9/60678.7
=0.17325519

Unum Group's asset turnover of this year was 0.17504405. Unum Group's asset turnover of last year was 0.17325519. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score=Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9
=1+1+1+1+0+0+1+0+1
=6

Good or high score = 8 or 9

Bad or low score = 0 or 1

Unum Group has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Unum Group Annual Data

Dec04Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13
Q1 0111111111
Q2 1111111111
Q3 1101010010
Q4 1111111111
Q5 0011101101
Q6 0000000000
Q7 0000111111
Q8 0000000000
Q9 0000010000
F-score 3445565555

Unum Group Quarterly Data

Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Dec14
Q1 111111111
Q2 111111111
Q3 001111001
Q4 111111111
Q5 100001100
Q6 000000000
Q7 111111111
Q8 000000000
Q9 010000001
F-score 5555565460
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