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Western Digital Corp (NAS:WDC)
Piotroski F-Score
3 (As of Today)

Warning Sign:

Piotroski F-Score of 3 is low, which usually implies poor business operation.

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Western Digital Corp has an F-score of 3. It is a bad or low score, which usually implies poor business operation.

WDC' s Piotroski F-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: 1   Max: 8
Current: 3

1
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Western Digital Corp was 8. The lowest was 1. And the median was 6.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep16) TTM:Last Year (Sep15) TTM:
Net Income was 251 + 74 + -366 + -366 = $-407 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 598 + 485 + 355 + 440 = $1,878 Mil.
Revenue was 3317 + 2822 + 3495 + 4714 = $14,348 Mil.
Gross Profit was 906 + 753 + 821 + 1335 = $3,815 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Sep15)
to the end of this year (Sep16) was
(15261 + 15466 + 14947 + 32862 + 29010) / 5 = $21509.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Sep15) was $15,261 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $13,055 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,123 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,919 Mil.
Net Income was 438 + 384 + 220 + 283 = $1,325 Mil.

Revenue was 3888 + 3550 + 3191 + 3360 = $13,989 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1110 + 1032 + 930 + 955 = $4,027 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Sep14)
to the end of last year (Sep15) was
(15652 + 15139 + 15176 + 15181 + 15261) / 5 = $15281.8 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Sep14) was $15,652 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,109 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,655 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,231 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Western Digital Corp's current net income (TTM) was -407. ==> Negative ==> Score 0.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Western Digital Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 1,878. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

ROA (This Year)=Net Income (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep15)
=-407/15261
=-0.02666929

Western Digital Corp's return on assets of this year was -0.02666929. Western Digital Corp's return on assets of last year was 0.08465372. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Western Digital Corp's current net income (TTM) was -407. Western Digital Corp's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 1,878. ==> 1,878 > -407 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Sep16)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep15 to Sep16
=13055/21509.2
=0.60694958

Gearing (Last Year: Sep15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Sep14 to Sep15
=2109/15281.8
=0.1380073

Western Digital Corp's gearing of this year was 0.60694958. Western Digital Corp's gearing of last year was 0.1380073. ==> Last year is lower than this year ==> Score 0.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Sep16)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=9123/3919
=2.32788977

Current Ratio (Last Year: Sep15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=8655/3231
=2.67873723

Western Digital Corp's current ratio of this year was 2.32788977. Western Digital Corp's current ratio of last year was 2.67873723. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Western Digital Corp's number of shares in issue this year was 285. Western Digital Corp's number of shares in issue last year was 234. ==> There is larger number of shares in issue this year. ==> Score 0.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=3815/14348
=0.26589072

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=4027/13989
=0.28786904

Western Digital Corp's gross margin of this year was 0.26589072. Western Digital Corp's gross margin of last year was 0.28786904. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Sep15)
=14348/15261
=0.9401743

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Sep14)
=13989/15652
=0.8937516

Western Digital Corp's asset turnover of this year was 0.9401743. Western Digital Corp's asset turnover of last year was 0.8937516. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=0+1+0+1+0+0+0+0+1
=3

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Western Digital Corp has an F-score of 3. It is a bad or low score, which usually implies poor business operation.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Western Digital Corp Annual Data

Jun06Jun07Jun08Jun09Jun10Jun11Jun12Jun13Jun14Jun15
Question 1 1111111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1110101010
Question 4 0111111111
Question 5 1101110101
Question 6 1101110111
Question 7 0011000011
Question 8 1010101011
Question 9 0010101000
F-score 6676856577

Western Digital Corp Quarterly Data

Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16
Question 1 1111111110
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 1111000000
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 0001111100
Question 6 1111111100
Question 7 1111111100
Question 8 1110100000
Question 9 0000000001
F-score 7777766633
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