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Willis Group Holdings PLC (NYSE:WSH)
Piotroski F-Score
6 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination were as such:

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Willis Group Holdings PLC has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.

WSH' s 10-Year Piotroski F-Score Range
Min: 3   Max: 8
Current: 6

3
8

During the past 13 years, the highest Piotroski F-Score of Willis Group Holdings PLC was 8. The lowest was 3. And the median was 5.


Definition

How is the Piotroski F-Score calculated?

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Net Income was 47 + -7 + 76 + 210 = $326 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 147 + 129 + 196 + -64 = $408 Mil.
Revenue was 935 + 812 + 958 + 1087 = $3,792 Mil.
Gross Profit was 935 + 812 + 958 + 1087 = $3,792 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of this year (Mar14)
to the end of this year (Mar15) was
(15828 + 16551 + 15208 + 15435 + 16105) / 5 = $15825.4 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of this year (Mar14) was $15,828 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,137 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,328 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $10,548 Mil.
Net Income was 105 + -27 + 68 + 246 = $392 Mil.

Revenue was 890 + 795 + 919 + 1097 = $3,701 Mil.
Gross Profit was 890 + 795 + 919 + 1097 = $3,701 Mil.
Average Total Assets from the begining of last year (Mar13)
to the end of last year (Mar14) was
(15802 + 15938 + 15323 + 14800 + 15828) / 5 = $15538.2 Mil.
Total Assets at the begining of last year (Mar13) was $15,802 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,307 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $11,445 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $10,276 Mil.

Profitability

Question 1. Return on Assets (ROA)

Net income before extraordinary items for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Willis Group Holdings PLC's current net income (TTM) was 326. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 2. Cash Flow Return on Assets (CFROA)

Net cash flow from operating activities (operating cash flow) divided by total assets at the beginning of the year.

Score 1 if positive, 0 if negative.

Willis Group Holdings PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 408. ==> Positive ==> Score 1.

Question 3. Change in Return on Assets

Compare this year’s return on assets (1) to last year’s return on assets.

Score 1 if it’s higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Willis Group Holdings PLC's return on assets of this year was 0.02059641. Willis Group Holdings PLC's return on assets of last year was 0.02480699. ==> Last year is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 4. Quality of Earnings (Accrual)

Compare Cash flow return on assets (2) to return on assets (1)

Score 1 if CFROA > ROA, 0 if CFROA <= ROA.

Willis Group Holdings PLC's current net income (TTM) was 326. Willis Group Holdings PLC's current cash flow from operations (TTM) was 408. ==> 408 > 326 ==> CFROA > ROA ==> Score 1.

Funding

Question 5. Change in Gearing or Leverage

Compare this year’s gearing (long-term debt divided by average total assets) to last year’s gearing.

Score 0 if this year's gearing is higher, 1 otherwise.

Gearing (This Year: Mar15)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Mar14 to Mar15
=2137/15825.4
=0.13503608

Gearing (Last Year: Mar14)=Long-Term Debt/Average Total Assets from Mar13 to Mar14
=2307/15538.2
=0.1484728

Willis Group Holdings PLC's gearing of this year was 0.13503608. Willis Group Holdings PLC's gearing of last year was 0.1484728. ==> This year is lower or equal to last year. ==> Score 1.

Question 6. Change in Working Capital (Liquidity)

Compare this year’s current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) to last year’s current ratio.

Score 1 if this year'’s current ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Current Ratio (This Year: Mar15)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=11328/10548
=1.07394767

Current Ratio (Last Year: Mar14)=Total Current Assets/Total Current Liabilities
=11445/10276
=1.11376022

Willis Group Holdings PLC's current ratio of this year was 1.07394767. Willis Group Holdings PLC's current ratio of last year was 1.11376022. ==> Last year's current ratio is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 7. Change in Shares in Issue

Compare the number of shares in issue this year, to the number in issue last year.

Score 0 if there is larger number of shares in issue this year, 1 otherwise.

Willis Group Holdings PLC's number of shares in issue this year was 182. Willis Group Holdings PLC's number of shares in issue last year was 182. ==> There is smaller number of shares in issue this year, or the same. ==> Score 1.

Efficiency

Question 8. Change in Gross Margin

Compare this year’s gross margin (gross profit divided by sales) to last year’s.

Score 1 if this year’s gross margin is higher, 0 if it’s lower.

Gross Margin (This Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=3792/3792
=1

Gross Margin (Last Year: TTM)=Gross Profit/Revenue
=3701/3701
=1

Willis Group Holdings PLC's gross margin of this year was 1. Willis Group Holdings PLC's gross margin of last year was 1. ==> Last year's gross margin is higher ==> Score 0.

Question 9. Change in asset turnover

Compare this year’s asset turnover (total sales for the year divided by total assets at the beginning of the year) to last year’s asset turnover ratio.

Score 1 if this year’s asset turnover ratio is higher, 0 if it’s lower

Asset Turnover (This Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of This Year (Mar14)
=3792/15828
=0.23957544

Asset Turnover (Last Year)=Revenue (TTM)/Total Assets at the Beginning of Last Year (Mar13)
=3701/15802
=0.23421086

Willis Group Holdings PLC's asset turnover of this year was 0.23957544. Willis Group Holdings PLC's asset turnover of last year was 0.23421086. ==> This year's asset turnover is higher. ==> Score 1.

Evaluation

Piotroski F-Score= Que. 1+ Que. 2+ Que. 3+Que. 4+Que. 5+Que. 6+Que. 7+Que. 8+Que. 9
=1+1+0+1+1+0+1+0+1
=6

Good or high score = 7, 8, 9
Bad or low score = 0, 1, 2, 3

Willis Group Holdings PLC has an F-score of 6 indicating the company's financial situation is typical for a stable company.


Explanation

The developer of the system is Joseph D. Piotroski is relatively unknown accounting professor who shuns publicity and rarely gives interviews.

He graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in accounting in 1989, received an M.B.A. from Indiana University in 1994. Five years later, in 1999, after earning a Ph.D. in accounting from the University of Michigan, he became an associate professor of accounting at the University of Chicago.

In 2000, he wrote a research paper called "Value Investing: The Use of Historical Financial Statement Information to Separate Winners from Losers" (pdf).

He wanted to see if he can develop a system (using a simple nine-point scoring system) that can increase the returns of a strategy of investing in low price to book (referred to in the paper as high book to market) value companies.

What he found was something that exceeded his most optimistic expectations.

Buying only those companies that scored highest (8 or 9) on his nine-point scale, or F-Score as he called it, over the 20 year period from 1976 to 1996 led to an average out-performance over the market of 13.4%.

Even more impressive were the results of a strategy of investing in the highest F-Score companies (8 or 9) and shorting companies with the lowest F-Score (0 or 1).

Over the same period from 1976 to 1996 (20 years) this strategy led to an average yearly return of 23%, substantially outperforming the average S&P 500 index return of 15.83% over the same period.


Related Terms

Net Income, Cash Flow from Operations, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Assets, Long-Term Debt, Total Current Assets, Total Current Liabilities


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Willis Group Holdings PLC Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
Question 1 1111111011
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0100110011
Question 4 0000011111
Question 5 0000000101
Question 6 0100111010
Question 7 0110010101
Question 8 1001000000
Question 9 0101011111
F-score 3634475567

Willis Group Holdings PLC Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
Question 1 0000111111
Question 2 1111111111
Question 3 0000111110
Question 4 1111111111
Question 5 1000000111
Question 6 0000111000
Question 7 1100000011
Question 8 0000000000
Question 9 1111111111
F-score 5433666676
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