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ABB Ltd (NYSE:ABB)
Beneish M-Score
-2.86 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

ABB Ltd has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

ABB' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -2.94   Max: -2.22
Current: -2.86

-2.94
-2.22

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of ABB Ltd was -2.22. The lowest was -2.94. And the median was -2.59.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of ABB Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.032+0.528 * 1.0237+0.404 * 0.9886+0.892 * 0.9314+0.115 * 0.9799
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0822+4.679 * -0.0669-0.327 * 1.0658
=-2.85

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep16) TTM:Last Year (Sep15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $10,155 Mil.
Revenue was 8255 + 8677 + 7903 + 9242 = $34,077 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2459 + 2415 + 2358 + 2395 = $9,627 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $22,902 Mil.
Total Assets was $40,809 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $4,861 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,141 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,535 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16,177 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,319 Mil.
Net Income was 568 + 406 + 500 + 204 = $1,678 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1081 + 1082 + 252 + 1994 = $4,409 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $10,564 Mil.
Revenue was 8519 + 9165 + 8555 + 10346 = $36,585 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2518 + 2720 + 2501 + 2841 = $10,580 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $23,067 Mil.
Total Assets was $41,768 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,194 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,189 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,491 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $15,032 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,571 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(10155 / 34077) / (10564 / 36585)
=0.29800158 / 0.28875222
=1.032

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(10580 / 36585) / (9627 / 34077)
=0.28918956 / 0.28250726
=1.0237

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (22902 + 4861) / 40809) / (1 - (23067 + 5194) / 41768)
=0.31968438 / 0.32338154
=0.9886

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=34077 / 36585
=0.9314

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(1189 / (1189 + 5194)) / (1141 / (1141 + 4861))
=0.18627605 / 0.1901033
=0.9799

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(5535 / 34077) / (5491 / 36585)
=0.16242627 / 0.15008883
=1.0822

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((6319 + 16177) / 40809) / ((6571 + 15032) / 41768)
=0.55125095 / 0.51721414
=1.0658

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(1678 - 0 - 4409) / 40809
=-0.0669

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

ABB Ltd has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

ABB Ltd Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 0.92310.96960.96841.12251.06180.89850.73810.95450.96961.4639
GMI 0.89810.94260.98071.06840.97231.00231.04051.00941.01770.9858
AQI 0.76440.77991.06170.98981.1621.51931.11691.03880.991.0163
SGI 1.11051.25351.19630.91070.99351.20261.03541.06390.95180.8908
DEPI 1.12031.08340.99951.12960.99840.82531.01420.95250.92791.0408
SGAI 1.03050.91740.97820.8471.03430.96811.03460.99521.0461.0314
LVGI 0.88540.86141.01240.88891.02111.01351.08220.93381.01181.0342
TATA -0.02840.0205-0.0254-0.0324-0.0451-0.0112-0.0219-0.018-0.0279-0.0456
M-score -2.69-2.24-2.44-2.49-2.60-2.25-2.75-2.51-2.70-2.38

ABB Ltd Quarterly Data

Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16
DSRI 0.96630.94780.96960.92771.00331.00081.46391.0681.03491.032
GMI 1.02071.04181.01771.01020.98760.95770.98580.98441.01281.0237
AQI 0.96980.95930.991.03581.03211.03441.01630.99770.98160.9886
SGI 1.02120.98460.95180.93530.91150.89540.89080.8950.90640.9314
DEPI 0.99210.9270.92790.91870.98031.02881.04081.09421.04830.9799
SGAI 1.03071.05631.0461.01990.99920.98271.03141.05371.08191.0822
LVGI 0.99491.01491.01181.00521.02270.99521.03421.03311.09341.0658
TATA -0.0348-0.0364-0.0279-0.0308-0.0255-0.0299-0.0456-0.0514-0.067-0.0669
M-score -2.66-2.73-2.70-2.74-2.68-2.71-2.38-2.77-2.88-2.85
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