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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
ABB Ltd has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of ABB Ltd was -2.19. The lowest was -3.00. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of ABB Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9663||+||0.528 * 1.0207||+||0.404 * 0.9698||+||0.892 * 1.0212||+||0.115 * 0.9921|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0307||+||4.679 * -0.0348||-||0.327 * 0.9949|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $12,106 Mil.|
Revenue was 10190 + 9471 + 11373 + 10535 = $41,569 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2885 + 2727 + 2942 + 3174 = $11,728 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $26,384 Mil.
Total Assets was $47,075 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,984 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,345 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $6,228 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16,886 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,585 Mil.
Net Income was 636 + 544 + 525 + 835 = $2,540 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 888 + -45 + 2092 + 1241 = $4,176 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $12,268 Mil.
Revenue was 10225 + 9715 + 11021 + 9745 = $40,706 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3025 + 2851 + 2923 + 2923 = $11,722 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $25,069 Mil.
Total Assets was $45,513 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,782 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,287 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,917 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16,363 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,417 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(12106 / 41569)||/||(12268 / 40706)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2727 / 40706)||/||(2885 / 41569)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (26384 + 5984) / 47075)||/||(1 - (25069 + 5782) / 45513)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1287 / (1287 + 5782))||/||(1345 / (1345 + 5984))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(6228 / 41569)||/||(5917 / 40706)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((7585 + 16886) / 47075)||/||((7417 + 16363) / 45513)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2540 - 0||-||4176)||/||47075|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
ABB Ltd has a M-score of -2.66 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
ABB Ltd Annual Data
ABB Ltd Quarterly Data