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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 6 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of AbbVie Inc was -2.68. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.73.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of AbbVie Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8834||+||0.528 * 0.9631||+||0.404 * 1.0572||+||0.892 * 1.0743||+||0.115 * 1.157|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3407||+||4.679 * -0.0703||-||0.327 * 1.1323|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $4,356 Mil.|
Revenue was 5040 + 5452 + 5019 + 4926 = $20,437 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4098 + 4333 + 3925 + 3813 = $16,169 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $15,408 Mil.
Total Assets was $26,699 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,431 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $745 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7,857 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $11,050 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,683 Mil.
Net Income was 1022 + -810 + 506 + 1098 = $1,816 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -165 + -809 + 145 + 13 = $-816 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1585 + -578 + 1786 + 1717 = $4,510 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,590 Mil.
Revenue was 4563 + 5111 + 4658 + 4692 = $19,024 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3463 + 3829 + 3566 + 3638 = $14,496 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,329 Mil.
Total Assets was $28,657 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,333 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $869 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,455 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,216 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $14,386 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4356 / 20437)||/||(4590 / 19024)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(4333 / 19024)||/||(4098 / 20437)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (15408 + 2431) / 26699)||/||(1 - (17329 + 2333) / 28657)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(869 / (869 + 2333))||/||(745 / (745 + 2431))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(7857 / 20437)||/||(5455 / 19024)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((10683 + 11050) / 26699)||/||((14386 + 6216) / 28657)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1816 - -816||-||4510)||/||26699|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
AbbVie Inc has a M-score of -2.93 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
AbbVie Inc Annual Data
AbbVie Inc Quarterly Data