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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
AbbVie Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 5 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of AbbVie Inc was -2.69. The lowest was -2.71. And the median was -2.69.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of AbbVie Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9874||+||0.528 * 0.9983||+||0.404 * 0.8488||+||0.892 * 1.0279||+||0.115 * 1.1999|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0406||+||4.679 * -0.0407||-||0.327 * 0.9453|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,811 Mil.|
Revenue was 4926 + 4563 + 5111 + 4658 = $19,258 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3813 + 3463 + 3829 + 3566 = $14,671 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,794 Mil.
Total Assets was $29,045 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,387 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $835 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,497 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,317 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $14,470 Mil.
Net Income was 1098 + 980 + 1128 + 964 = $4,170 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 13 + 0 + -28 + -16 = $-31 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1717 + 624 + 1245 + 1798 = $5,384 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3,755 Mil.
Revenue was 4692 + 4329 + 5205.795 + 4508.454 = $18,735 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3638 + 3176 + 3940.468 + 3494.377 = $14,249 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $15,662 Mil.
Total Assets was $27,910 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,213 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $999 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,139 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,805 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $14,326 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3811 / 19258)||/||(3755 / 18735.249)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3463 / 18735.249)||/||(3813 / 19258)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (17794 + 2387) / 29045)||/||(1 - (15662 + 2213) / 27910)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(998.665 / (998.665 + 2213))||/||(835 / (835 + 2387))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(5497 / 19258)||/||(5139.103 / 18735.249)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((14470 + 6317) / 29045)||/||((14326 + 6805) / 27910)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4170 - -31||-||5384)||/||29045|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
AbbVie Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
AbbVie Inc Annual Data
AbbVie Inc Quarterly Data