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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of AmerisourceBergen Corp was 2.47. The lowest was -3.12. And the median was -2.49.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of AmerisourceBergen Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.085||+||0.528 * 0.9182||+||0.404 * 0.8946||+||0.892 * 1.0663||+||0.115 * 1.0827|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9466||+||4.679 * -0.0194||-||0.327 * 0.9385|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $9,696 Mil.|
Revenue was 38169.265 + 37560.603 + 36881.68 + 35698.357 = $148,310 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1037.68 + 1124.535 + 1107.863 + 1075.331 = $4,345 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $23,079 Mil.
Total Assets was $33,919 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,631 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $409 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,085 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $25,543 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,872 Mil.
Net Income was 247.246 + 143.614 + 349.803 + 604.135 = $1,345 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.123 + 1.824 + 2.158 + 0.756 = $5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -430.355 + 1356.539 + 191.372 + 878.972 = $1,997 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $8,381 Mil.
Revenue was 36709.046 + 35470.378 + 34233.556 + 32669.267 = $139,082 Mil.
Gross Profit was 964.877 + 973.574 + 891.464 + 911.976 = $3,742 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $20,362 Mil.
Total Assets was $30,756 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,060 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $294 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,065 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $24,024 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,393 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(9696.2 / 148309.905)||/||(8380.652 / 139082.247)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3741.891 / 139082.247)||/||(4345.409 / 148309.905)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (23078.756 + 1630.741) / 33919.272)||/||(1 - (20361.675 + 1059.501) / 30755.802)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(293.988 / (293.988 + 1059.501))||/||(409.247 / (409.247 + 1630.741))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2084.612 / 148309.905)||/||(2065.157 / 139082.247)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3871.584 + 25542.758) / 33919.272)||/||((4393.317 + 24024.341) / 30755.802)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1344.798 - 4.861||-||1996.528)||/||33919.272|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
AmerisourceBergen Corp has a M-score of -2.48 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
AmerisourceBergen Corp Annual Data
AmerisourceBergen Corp Quarterly Data