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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc has a M-score of -2.55 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 4 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Acadia Healthcare Co Inc was -1.91. The lowest was -2.55. And the median was -2.47.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Acadia Healthcare Co Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9092||+||0.528 * 0.9883||+||0.404 * 0.75||+||0.892 * 1.4205||+||0.115 * 0.8251|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 2.5613||+||4.679 * -0.0116||-||0.327 * 0.7165|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $110.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 213.803 + 201.418 + 189.999 + 184.702 = $789.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 80.734 + 73.779 + 71.389 + 71.107 = $297.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $449.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,592.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $419.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $20.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $163.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $102.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $555.8 Mil.
Net Income was 22.451 + 13.058 + 12.28 + 14.364 = $62.2 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 13.735 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $13.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 21.893 + 7.346 + 20.687 + 16.925 = $66.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $85.9 Mil.
Revenue was 177.494 + 161.213 + 114.252 + 103.116 = $556.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 67.117 + 58.264 + 42.855 + 38.397 = $206.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $127.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,114.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $312.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $44.8 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $86.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $556.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(110.904 / 789.922)||/||(85.872 / 556.075)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(73.779 / 556.075)||/||(80.734 / 789.922)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (449.596 + 419.386) / 1592.552)||/||(1 - (127.089 + 312.147) / 1114.172)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(12.56 / (12.56 + 312.147))||/||(20.627 / (20.627 + 419.386))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(163.137 / 789.922)||/||(44.837 / 556.075)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((555.812 + 102.665) / 1592.552)||/||((556.276 + 86.679) / 1114.172)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(62.153 - 13.735||-||66.851)||/||1592.552|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc has a M-score of -2.55 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc Annual Data
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc Quarterly Data