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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 5 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Acadia Healthcare Co Inc was -2.02. The lowest was -2.40. And the median was -2.13.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Acadia Healthcare Co Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.066||+||0.528 * 0.9755||+||0.404 * 1.0144||+||0.892 * 1.5511||+||0.115 * 1.4096|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.2637||+||4.679 * -0.0157||-||0.327 * 1.0586|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $173 Mil.|
Revenue was 365.783 + 294.901 + 294.479 + 213.803 = $1,169 Mil.
Gross Profit was 143.658 + 114.469 + 111.785 + 80.734 = $451 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $325 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,627 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,230 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $40 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $110 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $231 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,019 Mil.
Net Income was 14.594 + 22.129 + 25.402 + 22.451 = $85 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.053 + 0 + 1.527 + 13.735 = $15 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 18.222 + 46.24 + 39.807 + 21.893 = $126 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $105 Mil.
Revenue was 201.418 + 189.999 + 184.702 + 177.494 = $754 Mil.
Gross Profit was 73.779 + 71.389 + 71.107 + 67.117 = $283 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $157 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,283 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $403 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $19 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $56 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $98 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $654 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(172.938 / 1168.966)||/||(104.585 / 753.613)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(114.469 / 753.613)||/||(143.658 / 1168.966)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (325.378 + 1229.677) / 3627.145)||/||(1 - (157.037 + 403.366) / 1282.945)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(18.904 / (18.904 + 403.366))||/||(40.335 / (40.335 + 1229.677))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(110.332 / 1168.966)||/||(56.285 / 753.613)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2018.681 + 230.66) / 3627.145)||/||((653.626 + 97.905) / 1282.945)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(84.576 - 15.315||-||126.162)||/||3627.145|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc has a M-score of -2.03 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc Annual Data
Acadia Healthcare Co Inc Quarterly Data