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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Adobe Systems Inc was -0.90. The lowest was -4.18. And the median was -2.77.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Adobe Systems Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9897||+||0.528 * 1.0066||+||0.404 * 1.0389||+||0.892 * 1.1351||+||0.115 * 0.9789|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8737||+||4.679 * -0.0868||-||0.327 * 1.1494|
|This Year (Aug15) TTM:||Last Year (Aug14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $594 Mil.|
Revenue was 1217.768 + 1162.158 + 1109.181 + 0 = $3,489 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1026.783 + 976.985 + 942.383 + 0 = $2,946 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,526 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,508 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $797 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $331 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,640 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,061 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,906 Mil.
Net Income was 174.465 + 147.493 + 84.888 + 0 = $407 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -4.275 + -2.884 + -1.52 + 0 = $-9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 360.488 + 471.484 + 183.015 + 399.753 = $1,415 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $528 Mil.
Revenue was 1005.409 + 1068.208 + 1000.12 + 0 = $3,074 Mil.
Gross Profit was 847.685 + 913.304 + 851.611 + 0 = $2,613 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,279 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,494 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $786 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $317 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,653 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,245 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $902 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(593.554 / 3489.107)||/||(528.331 / 3073.737)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(976.985 / 3073.737)||/||(1026.783 / 3489.107)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4525.888 + 797.464) / 11508.395)||/||(1 - (4279.468 + 785.856) / 10493.68)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(316.793 / (316.793 + 785.856))||/||(331.261 / (331.261 + 797.464))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1639.637 / 3489.107)||/||(1653.244 / 3073.737)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1906.094 + 2060.814) / 11508.395)||/||((901.83 + 2245.248) / 10493.68)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(406.846 - -8.679||-||1414.74)||/||11508.395|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Adobe Systems Inc has a M-score of -2.79 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Adobe Systems Inc Annual Data
Adobe Systems Inc Quarterly Data