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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Advent Software Inc has a M-score of -3.12 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Advent Software Inc was 0.99. The lowest was -4.17. And the median was -2.90.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Advent Software Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9362||+||0.528 * 0.9707||+||0.404 * 1.0025||+||0.892 * 1.0433||+||0.115 * 1.033|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.865||+||4.679 * -0.1426||-||0.327 * 0.9052|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $55.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 98.982 + 100.37 + 96.804 + 97.579 = $393.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 69.098 + 70.579 + 68.322 + 68.524 = $276.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $141.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $432.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $28.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $21.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $118.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $248.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $235.0 Mil.
Net Income was 11.983 + 12.639 + 10.886 + 10.999 = $46.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 28.263 + 22.439 + 20.875 + 36.663 = $108.2 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $56.6 Mil.
Revenue was 96.767 + 96.123 + 92.49 + 92.017 = $377.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 64.976 + 65.727 + 64.011 + 62.578 = $257.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $147.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $454.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $31.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $25.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $131.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $231.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $330.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(55.28 / 393.735)||/||(56.597 / 377.397)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(70.579 / 377.397)||/||(69.098 / 393.735)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (141.593 + 28.502) / 432.882)||/||(1 - (147.828 + 31.602) / 454.896)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(25.41 / (25.41 + 31.602))||/||(21.628 / (21.628 + 28.502))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(118.743 / 393.735)||/||(131.572 / 377.397)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((235 + 248.464) / 432.882)||/||((330 + 231.261) / 454.896)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(46.507 - 0||-||108.24)||/||432.882|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Advent Software Inc has a M-score of -3.12 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Advent Software Inc Annual Data
Advent Software Inc Quarterly Data