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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of First Majestic Silver Corp was 10000000.00. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.45.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of First Majestic Silver Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6901||+||0.528 * 0.8736||+||0.404 * 6.3331||+||0.892 * 1.0957||+||0.115 * 0.7838|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8132||+||4.679 * -0.2042||-||0.327 * 0.8253|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $5.2 Mil.|
Revenue was 66.072 + 66.509 + 66.012 + 44.673 = $243.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 29.82 + 29.247 + 26.533 + 14.128 = $99.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $169.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $840.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $625.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $80.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $20.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $50.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $42.1 Mil.
Net Income was 6.105 + -7.433 + -102.961 + -1.78 = $-106.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 3.445 + -0.879 + -4.062 + 1.573 = $0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 14.881 + 22.108 + 17.628 + 10.866 = $65.5 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $6.9 Mil.
Revenue was 54.19 + 54.569 + 72.48 + 40.77 = $222.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 20.876 + 22.233 + 27.607 + 8.797 = $79.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $72.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $766.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $687.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $22.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $73.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $29.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(5.203 / 243.266)||/||(6.881 / 222.009)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(79.513 / 222.009)||/||(99.728 / 243.266)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (169.622 + 625.76) / 840.37)||/||(1 - (72.33 + 687.432) / 766.239)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(67.756 / (67.756 + 687.432))||/||(80.892 / (80.892 + 625.76))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(20.025 / 243.266)||/||(22.473 / 222.009)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((42.14 + 50.51) / 840.37)||/||((29.104 + 73.255) / 766.239)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-106.069 - 0.077||-||65.483)||/||840.37|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
First Majestic Silver Corp has a M-score of -1.48 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
First Majestic Silver Corp Annual Data
First Majestic Silver Corp Quarterly Data