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Apartment Investment & Management Company (NYSE:AIV)
Beneish M-Score
-2.59 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Apartment Investment & Management Company has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

AIV' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -36.83   Max: -2.44
Current: -2.59

-36.83
-2.44

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Apartment Investment & Management Company was -2.44. The lowest was -36.83. And the median was -2.95.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Apartment Investment & Management Company for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1+0.528 * 0.9905+0.404 * 0.8969+0.892 * 0.9941+0.115 * 1.0746
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0027+4.679 * -0.024-0.327 * 0.8698
=-2.59

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 244.265 + 242.178 + 246.843 + 246.418 = $979.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 147.17 + 153.92 + 150.39 + 150.959 = $602.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $259.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,215.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,484.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $286.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $44.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $397.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,888.3 Mil.
Net Income was 93.26 + 39.252 + 128.028 + 77.042 = $337.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 87.957 + -0.772 + 1.733 + 66.851 = $155.8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 64.651 + 88.035 + 89.11 + 89.478 = $331.3 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $0.0 Mil.
Revenue was 248.924 + 250.861 + 243.943 + 241.745 = $985.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 148.404 + 156.415 + 149.672 + 145.75 = $600.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $199.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,083.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,369.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $302.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $44.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $427.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,394.8 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(0 / 979.704) / (0 / 985.473)
=0 / 0
=1

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(153.92 / 985.473) / (147.17 / 979.704)
=0.60908924 / 0.6149194
=0.9905

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (259.918 + 5484.023) / 6215.453) / (1 - (199.218 + 5369.42) / 6083.152)
=0.07586124 / 0.08458017
=0.8969

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=979.704 / 985.473
=0.9941

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(302.873 / (302.873 + 5369.42)) / (286.733 / (286.733 + 5484.023))
=0.05339516 / 0.04968725
=1.0746

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(44.315 / 979.704) / (44.456 / 985.473)
=0.04523305 / 0.04511133
=1.0027

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((3888.284 + 397.746) / 6215.453) / ((4394.823 + 427.757) / 6083.152)
=0.68957645 / 0.79277651
=0.8698

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(337.582 - 155.769 - 331.274) / 6215.453
=-0.024

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Apartment Investment & Management Company has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Apartment Investment & Management Company Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
DSRI 1.16210.93990.7280.89280.90150.833801
GMI 01.77441.02680.97870.95430.9650.97880.9944
AQI 1.72310.6910.57941.14131.19821.0420.56830.994
SGI 0.85960.90290.90990.93350.930.97621.01621.0106
DEPI 1.10630.72180.98121.03741.00361.00881.21041.1015
SGAI 1.171.21120.62781.00931.02580.99820.90680.9568
LVGI 0.011103.23761.03431.01451.07140.98270.98370.9375
TATA -0.0441-0.0109-0.0363-0.0428-0.0438-0.0321-0.0199-0.0019
M-score -2.59-35.89-3.09-2.79-2.81-2.80-3.62-2.45

Apartment Investment & Management Company Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
DSRI 0.84150.83280.87710.948000011
GMI 0.96420.98150.98230.97920.97770.98050.98080.99290.99450.9905
AQI 1.0421.30591.61691.4660.56830.85210.81090.75560.9940.8969
SGI 0.96720.96370.9580.95051.00111.02851.0461.0591.01060.9941
DEPI 1.00880.99841.05811.10471.21041.13841.07851.06391.10151.0746
SGAI 1.00741.00540.94230.93030.92050.86870.87680.88530.95671.0027
LVGI 0.98270.98281.04211.00770.98370.97460.92910.90040.93750.8698
TATA -0.0321-0.0314-0.0354-0.0259-0.0199-0.0226-0.0172-0.0103-0.0242-0.024
M-score -2.80-2.69-2.55-2.49-3.64-3.50-3.47-3.44-2.55-2.59
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