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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. has a M-score of -2.41 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. was -1.18. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.45.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.932||+||0.528 * 1.0696||+||0.404 * 1.059||+||0.892 * 1.2616||+||0.115 * 1.0842|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.6115||+||4.679 * -0.0119||-||0.327 * 1.0383|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,289 Mil.|
Revenue was 890.2 + 835.8 + 779.5 + 674.1 = $3,180 Mil.
Gross Profit was -950.5 + 688.9 + 702.9 + 232.1 = $673 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,876 Mil.
Total Assets was $6,861 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $160 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $179 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $31 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,285 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $825 Mil.
Net Income was 60 + 74.6 + 93.5 + 40.5 = $269 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 71.3 + 204.8 + 22.6 + 51.2 = $350 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,096 Mil.
Revenue was 673.2 + 650.4 + 649.9 + 546.8 = $2,520 Mil.
Gross Profit was -857.4 + 622.7 + 620.9 + 184.7 = $571 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,430 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,352 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $105 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $140 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $15 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,363 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $725 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1288.8 / 3179.6)||/||(1096.1 / 2520.3)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(688.9 / 2520.3)||/||(-950.5 / 3179.6)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2875.6 + 160.4) / 6860.5)||/||(1 - (2429.5 + 105.4) / 5352.3)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(140.4 / (140.4 + 105.4))||/||(178.6 / (178.6 + 160.4))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(30.7 / 3179.6)||/||(15.1 / 2520.3)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((825 + 3284.8) / 6860.5)||/||((725 + 2362.9) / 5352.3)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(268.6 - 0||-||349.9)||/||6860.5|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. has a M-score of -2.41 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. Annual Data
Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. Quarterly Data