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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Arthur J Gallagher & Co has a M-score of -2.28 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Arthur J Gallagher & Co was 3.01. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.56.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Arthur J Gallagher & Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9235||+||0.528 * 1.1289||+||0.404 * 0.9979||+||0.892 * 1.2919||+||0.115 * 1.084|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8819||+||4.679 * -0.0134||-||0.327 * 1.0891|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,253 Mil.|
Revenue was 915 + 890.2 + 835.8 + 779.5 = $3,421 Mil.
Gross Profit was 277.7 + 261.4 + 276.4 + 702.9 = $1,518 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,198 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,276 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $166 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $191 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $854 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,034 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,425 Mil.
Net Income was 49.3 + 60 + 74.6 + 93.5 = $277 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 76.1 + 71.3 + 204.8 + 22.6 = $375 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,051 Mil.
Revenue was 674.1 + 673.2 + 650.4 + 649.9 = $2,648 Mil.
Gross Profit was 232.1 + 225 + 248.8 + 620.9 = $1,327 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,301 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,225 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $109 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $150 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $749 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,215 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $725 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1253.4 / 3420.5)||/||(1050.6 / 2647.6)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(261.4 / 2647.6)||/||(277.7 / 3420.5)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3198 + 165.9) / 7275.6)||/||(1 - (2301.4 + 108.5) / 5225.1)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(150 / (150 + 108.5))||/||(191.1 / (191.1 + 165.9))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(853.5 / 3420.5)||/||(749.1 / 2647.6)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1425 + 3033.6) / 7275.6)||/||((725 + 2215.1) / 5225.1)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(277.4 - 0||-||374.8)||/||7275.6|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Arthur J Gallagher & Co has a M-score of -2.28 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Arthur J Gallagher & Co Annual Data
Arthur J Gallagher & Co Quarterly Data