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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Allegiant Travel Co LLC was -1.60. The lowest was -3.61. And the median was -2.96.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Allegiant Travel Co LLC for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6364||+||0.528 * 0.8443||+||0.404 * 0.9427||+||0.892 * 1.1346||+||0.115 * 1.3346|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.033||+||4.679 * -0.1603||-||0.327 * 1.2927|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $13 Mil.|
Revenue was 329.241 + 278.952 + 265.029 + 290.541 = $1,164 Mil.
Gross Profit was 213.653 + 139.694 + 126.539 + 144.462 = $624 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $477 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,299 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $775 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $89 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $229 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $394 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $557 Mil.
Net Income was 64.867 + 4.797 + 14.172 + 33.499 = $117 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.004 + 0.044 + 0.101 + 0.075 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 162.96 + 74.627 + 47.946 + 39.843 = $325 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $19 Mil.
Revenue was 302.524 + 238.471 + 228.874 + 255.846 = $1,026 Mil.
Gross Profit was 141.313 + 102.842 + 102.255 + 118.224 = $465 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $427 Mil.
Total Assets was $904 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $443 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $71 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $195 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $303 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $209 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(13.468 / 1163.763)||/||(18.651 / 1025.715)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(139.694 / 1025.715)||/||(213.653 / 1163.763)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (476.783 + 775.474) / 1298.977)||/||(1 - (426.923 + 442.818) / 904.242)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(70.803 / (70.803 + 442.818))||/||(89.325 / (89.325 + 775.474))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(229.114 / 1163.763)||/||(195.482 / 1025.715)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((556.505 + 394.019) / 1298.977)||/||((208.905 + 302.963) / 904.242)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(117.335 - 0.216||-||325.376)||/||1298.977|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Allegiant Travel Co LLC has a M-score of -3.61 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Allegiant Travel Co LLC Annual Data
Allegiant Travel Co LLC Quarterly Data