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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Alkermes PLC was 0.44. The lowest was -4.05. And the median was -2.44.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Alkermes PLC for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0104||+||0.528 * 0.9192||+||0.404 * 1.1266||+||0.892 * 1.0154||+||0.115 * 1.0722|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.5349||+||4.679 * -0.1062||-||0.327 * 1.1221|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $155.5 Mil.|
Revenue was 163.098 + 152.653 + 151.37 + 161.214 = $628.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 128.307 + 118.847 + 120.952 + 121.24 = $489.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $755.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,855.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $254.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $85.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $311.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $236.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $284.2 Mil.
Net Income was -69.382 + -81.015 + -46.109 + -30.657 = $-227.2 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -3.427 + 1.855 + 11.996 + -0.211 = $10.2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.415 + -29.446 + -15.406 + 2.077 = $-40.4 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $151.6 Mil.
Revenue was 175.161 + 159.992 + 153.424 + 130.212 = $618.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 128.793 + 112.657 + 110.134 + 91.373 = $443.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $876.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,919.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $265.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $98.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $199.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $130.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $349.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(155.487 / 628.335)||/||(151.551 / 618.789)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(118.847 / 618.789)||/||(128.307 / 628.335)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (754.962 + 254.819) / 1855.744)||/||(1 - (876.793 + 265.74) / 1919.058)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(98.087 / (98.087 + 265.74))||/||(85.596 / (85.596 + 254.819))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(311.558 / 628.335)||/||(199.905 / 618.789)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((284.207 + 236.207) / 1855.744)||/||((349.006 + 130.582) / 1919.058)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-227.163 - 10.213||-||-40.36)||/||1855.744|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Alkermes PLC has a M-score of -3.07 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Alkermes PLC Annual Data
Alkermes PLC Quarterly Data