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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Altera Corp was 1.51. The lowest was -3.45. And the median was -2.54.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Altera Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.204||+||0.528 * 1.0162||+||0.404 * 1.359||+||0.892 * 0.9069||+||0.115 * 1.0234|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0517||+||4.679 * -0.0342||-||0.327 * 0.9997|
|This Year (Sep15) TTM:||Last Year (Sep14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $444 Mil.|
Revenue was 399.567 + 414.162 + 435.485 + 479.873 = $1,729 Mil.
Gross Profit was 265.9 + 287.572 + 279.222 + 311.701 = $1,144 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,910 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,885 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $209 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $66 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $301 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $678 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,494 Mil.
Net Income was 61.518 + 70.339 + 94.852 + 111.131 = $338 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -8.777 + 1.463 + 2.506 + -0.01 = $-5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 167.018 + 89.22 + 136.633 + 150.778 = $544 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $407 Mil.
Revenue was 499.606 + 491.517 + 461.092 + 454.367 = $1,907 Mil.
Gross Profit was 333.587 + 329.126 + 309.224 + 310.343 = $1,282 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,584 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,781 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $197 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $316 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $641 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,492 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(444.107 / 1729.087)||/||(406.708 / 1906.582)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1282.28 / 1906.582)||/||(1144.395 / 1729.087)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2909.904 + 208.897) / 5885.185)||/||(1 - (3584.241 + 197.213) / 5781.03)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(64.639 / (64.639 + 197.213))||/||(66.406 / (66.406 + 208.897))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(301.306 / 1729.087)||/||(315.897 / 1906.582)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1493.729 + 677.607) / 5885.185)||/||((1492.436 + 641.058) / 5781.03)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(337.84 - -4.818||-||543.649)||/||5885.185|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altera Corp has a M-score of -2.39 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Altera Corp Annual Data
Altera Corp Quarterly Data