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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc was 38.17. The lowest was -5.05. And the median was -2.37.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.977||+||0.528 * 1.002||+||0.404 * 2.8964||+||0.892 * 1.2445||+||0.115 * 1.3392|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1027||+||4.679 * -0.0175||-||0.327 * 2.2552|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $536 Mil.|
Revenue was 636.21 + 600.333 + 599.476 + 555.146 = $2,391 Mil.
Gross Profit was 584.203 + 530.934 + 550.037 + 503.288 = $2,168 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,533 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,168 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $555 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $51 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $750 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $769 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,498 Mil.
Net Income was 170.215 + 91.323 + 153.332 + 177.731 = $593 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.045 + 1.005 + -0.001 + -2.045 = $-3 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 238.222 + 23.034 + 283.459 + 281.521 = $826 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $441 Mil.
Revenue was 512.495 + 566.616 + 441.909 + 400.405 = $1,921 Mil.
Gross Profit was 472.869 + 533.677 + 390.357 + 349.047 = $1,746 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,341 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,554 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $273 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $35 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $546 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $418 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $93 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(535.824 / 2391.165)||/||(440.699 / 1921.425)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(530.934 / 1921.425)||/||(584.203 / 2391.165)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2533.238 + 555.388) / 13167.719)||/||(1 - (2341.306 + 273.326) / 3553.81)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(34.721 / (34.721 + 273.326))||/||(51.038 / (51.038 + 555.388))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(749.94 / 2391.165)||/||(546.473 / 1921.425)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3498.31 + 769.169) / 13167.719)||/||((93.015 + 417.701) / 3553.81)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(592.601 - -3.086||-||826.236)||/||13167.719|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc has a M-score of -1.99 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc Annual Data
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc Quarterly Data