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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc was 38.17. The lowest was -5.10. And the median was -2.34.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9636||+||0.528 * 0.9878||+||0.404 * 0.9869||+||0.892 * 1.18||+||0.115 * 0.2896|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0379||+||4.679 * -0.0564||-||0.327 * 0.9534|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $609 Mil.|
Revenue was 753.116 + 701.038 + 700.867 + 666.637 = $2,822 Mil.
Gross Profit was 692.489 + 642.052 + 643.241 + 612.58 = $2,590 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,361 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,029 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $825 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $338 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $918 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $658 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,368 Mil.
Net Income was 114.943 + 92.166 + 66.604 + -183.757 = $90 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.82 + 0.091 + -1.059 + 2.795 = $-1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 243.933 + 167.984 + 190.857 + 223.086 = $826 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $536 Mil.
Revenue was 636.21 + 600.333 + 599.476 + 555.146 = $2,391 Mil.
Gross Profit was 584.203 + 530.934 + 550.037 + 503.288 = $2,168 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,533 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,168 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $555 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $51 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $750 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $769 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,498 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(609.297 / 2821.658)||/||(535.824 / 2391.165)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2168.462 / 2391.165)||/||(2590.362 / 2821.658)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2361.209 + 825.301) / 13029.347)||/||(1 - (2533.238 + 555.388) / 13167.719)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(51.038 / (51.038 + 555.388))||/||(338.059 / (338.059 + 825.301))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(918.459 / 2821.658)||/||(749.94 / 2391.165)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3367.531 + 658.462) / 13029.347)||/||((3498.31 + 769.169) / 13167.719)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(89.956 - -0.993||-||825.86)||/||13029.347|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc has a M-score of -2.70 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc Annual Data
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc Quarterly Data