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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of American Public Education Inc was 2.86. The lowest was -3.37. And the median was -2.99.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of American Public Education Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6857||+||0.528 * 1.0045||+||0.404 * 0.9764||+||0.892 * 0.9614||+||0.115 * 0.8219|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9725||+||4.679 * -0.0959||-||0.327 * 0.7615|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $5.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 73.803 + 76.745 + 83.966 + 85.912 = $320.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 45.446 + 47.559 + 54.258 + 56.187 = $203.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $155.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $313.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $99.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $21.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $129.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $44.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 0.326 + 6.596 + 10.34 + 9.791 = $27.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 13.901 + 8.735 + 20.052 + 14.403 = $57.1 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $8.9 Mil.
Revenue was 76.291 + 80.263 + 85.444 + 91.297 = $333.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 47.124 + 50.567 + 55.184 + 59.703 = $212.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $141.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $311.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $109.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $18.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $139.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $57.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(5.878 / 320.426)||/||(8.917 / 333.295)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(212.578 / 333.295)||/||(203.45 / 320.426)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (155.137 + 99.155) / 313.324)||/||(1 - (141.528 + 109.858) / 311.489)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(18.398 / (18.398 + 109.858))||/||(20.966 / (20.966 + 99.155))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(129.92 / 320.426)||/||(138.953 / 333.295)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 43.983) / 313.324)||/||((0 + 57.419) / 311.489)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(27.053 - 0||-||57.091)||/||313.324|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
American Public Education Inc has a M-score of -3.20 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
American Public Education Inc Annual Data
American Public Education Inc Quarterly Data