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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
American Public Education Inc has a M-score of -1.76 signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 11 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of American Public Education Inc was 2.86. The lowest was -3.37. And the median was -2.86.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of American Public Education Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9205||+||0.528 * 1.0213||+||0.404 * 3.3797||+||0.892 * 1.0274||+||0.115 * 0.9203|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.057||+||4.679 * -0.0489||-||0.327 * 0.8774|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $6.6 Mil.|
Revenue was 84.707 + 85.463 + 88.553 + 82.937 = $341.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 54.081 + 55.266 + 57.205 + 53.904 = $220.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $130.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $292.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $96.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $15.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $143.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $53.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 8.842 + 9.802 + 10.436 + 8.997 = $38.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 24.945 + 9.776 + 12.449 + 5.215 = $52.4 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $7.0 Mil.
Revenue was 81.777 + 80.925 + 83.84 + 86 = $332.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 53.638 + 53.718 + 55.435 + 56.346 = $219.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $160.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $266.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $88.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $12.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $131.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $55.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(6.624 / 341.66)||/||(7.004 / 332.542)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(55.266 / 332.542)||/||(54.081 / 341.66)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (130.266 + 96.188) / 292.511)||/||(1 - (160.817 + 88.097) / 266.737)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(12.91 / (12.91 + 88.097))||/||(15.514 / (15.514 + 96.188))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(143.218 / 341.66)||/||(131.885 / 332.542)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 53.047) / 292.511)||/||((0 + 55.134) / 266.737)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(38.077 - 0||-||52.385)||/||292.511|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
American Public Education Inc has a M-score of -1.76 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
American Public Education Inc Annual Data
American Public Education Inc Quarterly Data