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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Ark Restaurants Corp was 23.75. The lowest was -10.10. And the median was -2.67.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Ark Restaurants Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9624||+||0.528 * 1.0689||+||0.404 * 1.0735||+||0.892 * 1.0581||+||0.115 * 0.9478|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0181||+||4.679 * -0.0923||-||0.327 * 0.8915|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 31.548 + 33.359 + 37.071 + 39.11 = $141.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2.895 + 5.324 + 6.75 + 7.071 = $22.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $61.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $28.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $15.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4.7 Mil.
Net Income was -0.583 + 0.722 + 2.288 + 2.239 = $4.7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.064 + 0.057 + 0.186 + 0.121 = $0.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -0.278 + 1.766 + 4.101 + 4.359 = $9.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2.7 Mil.
Revenue was 31.037 + 32.138 + 33.699 + 36.473 = $133.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3.629 + 5.198 + 5.571 + 7.867 = $22.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $12.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $61.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $29.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $16.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2.737 / 141.088)||/||(2.688 / 133.347)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(5.324 / 133.347)||/||(2.895 / 141.088)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (12.922 + 28.164) / 61.885)||/||(1 - (12.762 + 29.244) / 61.152)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(4.459 / (4.459 + 29.244))||/||(4.569 / (4.569 + 28.164))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(10.61 / 141.088)||/||(9.85 / 133.347)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4.715 + 15.487) / 61.885)||/||((6.332 + 16.06) / 61.152)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4.666 - 0.428||-||9.948)||/||61.885|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Ark Restaurants Corp has a M-score of -2.80 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Ark Restaurants Corp Annual Data
Ark Restaurants Corp Quarterly Data