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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of American Realty Investors Inc was 23.43. The lowest was -5.39. And the median was -2.46.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of American Realty Investors Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.2673||+||0.528 * 1.0416||+||0.404 * 1.0127||+||0.892 * 1.232||+||0.115 * 1.0663|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.7932||+||4.679 * -0.0405||-||0.327 * 1.0174|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $14.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 30.067 + 30.834 + 29.205 + 28.965 = $119.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 14.396 + 15.643 + 13.989 + 12.43 = $56.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $55.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,139.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $909.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $21.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $18.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $134.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $834.0 Mil.
Net Income was -3.754 + 2.489 + -3.205 + -1.305 = $-5.8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.953 + 7.918 + 1.172 + 8.155 = $18.2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -5.879 + 40.266 + -5.854 + -6.325 = $22.2 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $43.3 Mil.
Revenue was 27.826 + 24.241 + 23.156 + 21.426 = $96.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 13.327 + 12.94 + 11.488 + 9.979 = $47.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $97.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,087.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $825.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $21.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $18.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $118.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $790.4 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(14.26 / 119.071)||/||(43.301 / 96.649)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(47.734 / 96.649)||/||(56.458 / 119.071)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (55.201 + 909.709) / 1139.396)||/||(1 - (97.504 + 825.211) / 1087.111)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(20.992 / (20.992 + 825.211))||/||(21.668 / (21.668 + 909.709))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(18.199 / 119.071)||/||(18.624 / 96.649)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((833.98 + 134.682) / 1139.396)||/||((790.363 + 118.084) / 1087.111)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-5.775 - 18.198||-||22.208)||/||1139.396|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
American Realty Investors Inc has a M-score of -3.07 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
American Realty Investors Inc Annual Data
American Realty Investors Inc Quarterly Data