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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Yamana Gold Inc was 524.43. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.49.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Yamana Gold Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $20 Mil.|
Revenue was 455 + 458.1 + 529.171 + 501.203 = $1,943 Mil.
Gross Profit was 58.4 + 40.2 + 100.253 + 77.615 = $276 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $718 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,225 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10,866 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $531 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $115 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $551 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,842 Mil.
Net Income was -7.8 + -151.8 + -335.304 + -1023.266 = $-1,518 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -20.8 + 12.2 + 14.591 + 20.407 = $26 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 121.8 + 3.1 + 183.128 + 158.932 = $467 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 450.832 + 353.916 + 420.663 + 456.675 = $1,682 Mil.
Gross Profit was 74.807 + 33.101 + 70.113 + 144.01 = $322 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $442 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $128 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(19.6 / 1943.474)||/||(0 / 1682.086)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(40.2 / 1682.086)||/||(58.4 / 1943.474)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (717.8 + 10866.2) / 12224.5)||/||(1 - (0 + 0) / 0)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(442.283 / (442.283 + 0))||/||(531.227 / (531.227 + 10866.2))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(115.48 / 1943.474)||/||(127.829 / 1682.086)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1842.4 + 550.8) / 12224.5)||/||((0 + 0) / 0)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-1518.17 - 26.398||-||466.96)||/||12224.5|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Yamana Gold Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Yamana Gold Inc Annual Data
Yamana Gold Inc Quarterly Data