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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 8 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Avago Technologies Ltd was -2.46. The lowest was -3.35. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Avago Technologies Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1352||+||0.528 * 1.0445||+||0.404 * 1.8622||+||0.892 * 1.9582||+||0.115 * 0.5946|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9457||+||4.679 * -0.0897||-||0.327 * 5.6014|
|This Year (Jan15) TTM:||Last Year (Jan14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $718 Mil.|
Revenue was 1635 + 1590 + 1269 + 701 = $5,195 Mil.
Gross Profit was 826 + 788 + 393 + 357 = $2,364 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,098 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,697 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,269 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $794 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $450 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $845 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,454 Mil.
Net Income was 351 + 135 + -164 + 158 = $480 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 4 + 10 + -2 + 0 = $12 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 481 + 381 + 314 + 251 = $1,427 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $323 Mil.
Revenue was 709 + 738 + 644 + 562 = $2,653 Mil.
Gross Profit was 339 + 346 + 304 + 272 = $1,261 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,859 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,472 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $684 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $203 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $243 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $364 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(718 / 5195)||/||(323 / 2653)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(788 / 2653)||/||(826 / 5195)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4098 + 1269) / 10697)||/||(1 - (1859 + 684) / 3472)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(203 / (203 + 684))||/||(794 / (794 + 1269))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(450 / 5195)||/||(243 / 2653)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5454 + 845) / 10697)||/||((1 + 364) / 3472)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(480 - 12||-||1427)||/||10697|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Avago Technologies Ltd has a M-score of -3.09 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Avago Technologies Ltd Annual Data
Avago Technologies Ltd Quarterly Data