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Avago Technologies Ltd (NAS:AVGO)
Beneish M-Score
-2.54 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Avago Technologies Ltd has a M-score of -2.54 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

AVGO' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3   Max: -2.47
Current: -2.54

-3
-2.47

During the past 7 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Avago Technologies Ltd was -2.47. The lowest was -3.00. And the median was -2.58.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Avago Technologies Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.088+0.528 * 1.0161+0.404 * 1.1905+0.892 * 1.1161+0.115 * 1.0098
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0778+4.679 * -0.0625-0.327 * 1.0897
=-2.54

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jan14) TTM:Last Year (Jan13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $323 Mil.
Revenue was 709 + 738 + 644 + 562 = $2,653 Mil.
Gross Profit was 339 + 346 + 304 + 272 = $1,261 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,859 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,472 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $684 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $203 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $243 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $364 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1 Mil.
Net Income was 134 + 172 + 142 + 113 = $561 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 6 + 5 + 1 = $12 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 229 + 209 + 137 + 191 = $766 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $266 Mil.
Revenue was 576 + 618 + 606 + 577 = $2,377 Mil.
Gross Profit was 276 + 299 + 295 + 278 = $1,148 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,713 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,892 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $529 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $159 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $202 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $277 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(323 / 2653) / (266 / 2377)
=0.12174896 / 0.11190576
=1.088

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(346 / 2377) / (339 / 2653)
=0.48296172 / 0.47531097
=1.0161

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (1859 + 684) / 3472) / (1 - (1713 + 529) / 2892)
=0.26756912 / 0.22475795
=1.1905

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=2653 / 2377
=1.1161

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(159 / (159 + 529)) / (203 / (203 + 684))
=0.23110465 / 0.22886133
=1.0098

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(243 / 2653) / (202 / 2377)
=0.09159442 / 0.08498107
=1.0778

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1 + 364) / 3472) / ((2 + 277) / 2892)
=0.10512673 / 0.09647303
=1.0897

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(561 - 12 - 766) / 3472
=-0.0625

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Avago Technologies Ltd has a M-score of -2.54 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Avago Technologies Ltd Annual Data

Oct07Oct08Oct09Oct10Oct11Oct12Oct13
DSRI 1.03121.08151.1419
GMI 0.941.01641.0162
AQI 0.82370.77461.1743
SGI 1.11611.0121.066
DEPI 1.08871.40911.0682
SGAI 1.00570.89381.0465
LVGI 0.54860.84021.0211
TATA -0.0634-0.0454-0.0539
M-score -2.59-2.57-2.47

Avago Technologies Ltd Quarterly Data

Oct11Jan12Apr12Jul12Oct12Jan13Apr13Jul13Oct13Jan14
DSRI 1.03120.98540.89441.11681.08150.85350.99071.09181.14191.088
GMI 0.940.97751.0011.01151.01641.01021.00441.00961.01621.0161
AQI 0.82370.74240.7650.76220.77460.76510.80891.17341.17431.1905
SGI 1.11611.07411.061.03681.0121.01190.99831.01311.0661.1161
DEPI 1.08871.2071.2991.37171.40911.30581.22451.18451.06821.0098
SGAI 1.00571.02410.98440.91540.89380.90740.94141.0161.04651.0778
LVGI 0.54861.05640.99780.91430.84020.74380.79450.93851.02111.0897
TATA -0.0634-0.0978-0.077-0.0435-0.0454-0.0619-0.0586-0.0605-0.0539-0.0625
M-score -2.59-3.00-2.94-2.55-2.57-2.85-2.74-2.55-2.47-2.54
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