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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Avery Dennison Corp was -2.21. The lowest was -3.79. And the median was -2.55.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Avery Dennison Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9142||+||0.528 * 1.0226||+||0.404 * 1.0358||+||0.892 * 1.031||+||0.115 * 0.9697|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9504||+||4.679 * -0.0131||-||0.327 * 1.0736|
|This Year (Dec14) TTM:||Last Year (Dec13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $958 Mil.|
Revenue was 1604.8 + 1559.6 + 1615.8 + 1550.1 = $6,330 Mil.
Gross Profit was 415.1 + 400.7 + 428.2 + 407.2 = $1,651 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,921 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,360 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $875 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $202 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,155 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $945 Mil.
Net Income was 70.9 + 64.3 + 42.5 + 71.2 = $249 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -14.6 + -7.8 + -38.5 + -7.3 = $-68 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 174 + 190.4 + 117.8 + -108 = $374 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,017 Mil.
Revenue was 1583.9 + 1504.9 + 1552.3 + 1498.9 = $6,140 Mil.
Gross Profit was 416.3 + 402.2 + 417.5 + 401.7 = $1,638 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,092 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,611 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $923 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $205 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,179 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,554 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $951 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(958.1 / 6330.3)||/||(1016.5 / 6140)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(400.7 / 6140)||/||(415.1 / 6330.3)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1921.3 + 875.3) / 4360.2)||/||(1 - (2091.8 + 922.5) / 4610.6)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(204.6 / (204.6 + 922.5))||/||(201.6 / (201.6 + 875.3))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1155.3 / 6330.3)||/||(1179 / 6140)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((945.3 + 1597.8) / 4360.2)||/||((950.6 + 1554.1) / 4610.6)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(248.9 - -68.2||-||374.2)||/||4360.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Avery Dennison Corp has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Avery Dennison Corp Annual Data
Avery Dennison Corp Quarterly Data