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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Acuity Brands Inc has a M-score of -2.65 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Acuity Brands Inc was -2.25. The lowest was -2.94. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Acuity Brands Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9605||+||0.528 * 0.9896||+||0.404 * 0.9061||+||0.892 * 1.1385||+||0.115 * 0.9724|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9769||+||4.679 * -0.0483||-||0.327 * 0.9557|
|This Year (Feb14) TTM:||Last Year (Feb13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $309 Mil.|
Revenue was 546.2 + 574.7 + 579.8 + 541.5 = $2,242 Mil.
Gross Profit was 215.2 + 237.1 + 237.3 + 221.1 = $911 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $991 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,972 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $147 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $42 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $639 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $367 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $354 Mil.
Net Income was 32.7 + 44.5 + 44.9 + 31.7 = $154 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.1 + -0.6 + 56.8 + 3 = $59 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 14 + 43.4 + 64.5 + 68.1 = $190 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $282 Mil.
Revenue was 486.7 + 481.1 + 514.2 + 487.5 = $1,970 Mil.
Gross Profit was 189.7 + 189.5 + 210.4 + 202 = $792 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $784 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,742 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $145 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $40 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $575 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $313 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $354 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(308.7 / 2242.2)||/||(282.3 / 1969.5)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(237.1 / 1969.5)||/||(215.2 / 2242.2)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (990.5 + 147.1) / 1972.3)||/||(1 - (783.7 + 144.9) / 1742.4)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(40.2 / (40.2 + 144.9))||/||(42.3 / (42.3 + 147.1))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(639.4 / 2242.2)||/||(574.9 / 1969.5)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((353.6 + 366.9) / 1972.3)||/||((353.5 + 312.5) / 1742.4)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(153.8 - 59.1||-||190)||/||1972.3|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Acuity Brands Inc has a M-score of -2.65 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Acuity Brands Inc Annual Data
Acuity Brands Inc Quarterly Data