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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of AutoZone Inc was 0.98. The lowest was -3.33. And the median was -2.52.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of AutoZone Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.4131||+||0.528 * 0.9935||+||0.404 * 0.8812||+||0.892 * 1.0645||+||0.115 * 0.9573|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0093||+||4.679 * -0.0373||-||0.327 * 0.9923|
|This Year (Feb16) TTM:||Last Year (Feb15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $296 Mil.|
Revenue was 2257.192 + 2386.043 + 3290.404 + 2493.021 = $10,427 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1190.596 + 1252.934 + 1727.548 + 1302.789 = $5,474 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,210 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,366 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,545 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $284 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,470 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,995 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,388 Mil.
Net Income was 228.613 + 258.112 + 401.137 + 309.071 = $1,197 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + -70.02 + 0 + 0 = $-70 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 207.051 + 323.502 + 526.011 + 522.574 = $1,579 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $197 Mil.
Revenue was 2143.651 + 2260.264 + 3049.696 + 2341.545 = $9,795 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1120.033 + 1176.661 + 1595.217 + 1216.958 = $5,109 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,914 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,950 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,376 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $258 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,230 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,623 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,361 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(295.792 / 10426.66)||/||(196.65 / 9795.156)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1252.934 / 9795.156)||/||(1190.596 / 10426.66)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4209.813 + 3544.882) / 8366.414)||/||(1 - (3913.863 + 3376.48) / 7949.965)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(258.025 / (258.025 + 3376.48))||/||(283.943 / (283.943 + 3544.882))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3469.991 / 10426.66)||/||(3229.885 / 9795.156)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4387.811 + 4994.661) / 8366.414)||/||((4361.144 + 4623.323) / 7949.965)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1196.933 - -70.02||-||1579.138)||/||8366.414|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
AutoZone Inc has a M-score of -2.27 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
AutoZone Inc Annual Data
AutoZone Inc Quarterly Data