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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Aspen Technology Inc was -1.26. The lowest was -4.93. And the median was -2.92.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Aspen Technology Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7896||+||0.528 * 0.9717||+||0.404 * 0.8454||+||0.892 * 1.1462||+||0.115 * 1.6744|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.844||+||4.679 * -0.2595||-||0.327 * 1.3742|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $28.1 Mil.|
Revenue was 111.299 + 107.79 + 107.126 + 101.532 = $427.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 98.99 + 95.525 + 94.745 + 88.653 = $377.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $258.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $317.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $6.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $139.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $275.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 28.17 + 30.464 + 28.967 + 26.678 = $114.3 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.414 + -0.248 + 0.188 + -0.471 = $-0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 64.642 + 33.832 + 39.943 + 58.242 = $196.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $31.0 Mil.
Revenue was 103.587 + 98.769 + 87.565 + 83.264 = $373.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 88.299 + 86.326 + 75.487 + 70.276 = $320.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $318.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $383.0 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7.2 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $5.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $144.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $242.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(28.084 / 427.747)||/||(31.031 / 373.185)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(95.525 / 373.185)||/||(98.99 / 427.747)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (258.405 + 18.459) / 317.065)||/||(1 - (318.42 + 7.167) / 383.03)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(4.97 / (4.97 + 7.167))||/||(5.976 / (5.976 + 18.459))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(139.364 / 427.747)||/||(144.063 / 373.185)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 275.854) / 317.065)||/||((0 + 242.499) / 383.03)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(114.279 - -0.117||-||196.659)||/||317.065|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Aspen Technology Inc has a M-score of -3.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Aspen Technology Inc Annual Data
Aspen Technology Inc Quarterly Data