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Bank of America Corporation (NYSE:BAC)
Beneish M-Score
-2.59 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Bank of America Corporation has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

BAC' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -3.4   Max: -0.39
Current: -2.59

-3.4
-0.39

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Bank of America Corporation was -0.39. The lowest was -3.40. And the median was -2.47.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Bank of America Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9019+0.528 * 1+0.404 * 1.0003+0.892 * 0.9891+0.115 * 1.0113
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 0.8095+4.679 * -0.0125-0.327 * 0.9601
=-2.59

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar16) TTM:Last Year (Mar15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $56,838 Mil.
Revenue was 19512 + 19667 + 20682 + 22117 = $81,978 Mil.
Gross Profit was 19512 + 19667 + 20682 + 22117 = $81,978 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,185,498 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $9,358 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,347 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $47,291 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $232,849 Mil.
Net Income was 2680 + 3336 + 4508 + 5320 = $15,844 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 10843 + 5471 + 34902 + -7951 = $43,265 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $63,716 Mil.
Revenue was 21202 + 18725 + 21209 + 21747 = $82,883 Mil.
Gross Profit was 21202 + 18725 + 21209 + 21747 = $82,883 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $0 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,143,545 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $9,833 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,501 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $59,066 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $237,858 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(56838 / 81978) / (63716 / 82883)
=0.69333236 / 0.76874631
=0.9019

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(82883 / 82883) / (81978 / 81978)
=1 / 1
=1

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (0 + 9358) / 2185498) / (1 - (0 + 9833) / 2143545)
=0.99571814 / 0.99541274
=1.0003

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=81978 / 82883
=0.9891

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(2501 / (2501 + 9833)) / (2347 / (2347 + 9358))
=0.20277282 / 0.2005126
=1.0113

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(47291 / 81978) / (59066 / 82883)
=0.57687428 / 0.71264312
=0.8095

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((232849 + 0) / 2185498) / ((237858 + 0) / 2143545)
=0.10654277 / 0.11096478
=0.9601

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(15844 - 0 - 43265) / 2185498
=-0.0125

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Bank of America Corporation has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Bank of America Corporation Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 1111.32631.13460.9221.19620.77943.40590.9399
GMI 1111111111
AQI 0.99970.99980.99931.00031.00070.99991.0011.00041.00021.0004
SGI 1.26940.91371.09751.64390.92120.84790.89171.06730.94720.9793
DEPI 0.7821.17191.00270.9251.01391.0550.9981.00021.01640.9971
SGAI 0.99251.12430.89521.53621.18751.32721.05090.90911.17640.7497
LVGI 1.28121.15091.2821.33651.00380.88310.71320.95240.97280.9557
TATA 0.00450.0023-0-0.0555-0.0375-0.02960.0082-0.0387-0.0104-0.0055
M-score -2.33-2.60-2.47-2.08-2.63-2.84-2.27-2.77-0.38-2.52

Bank of America Corporation Quarterly Data

Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16
DSRI 0.77940.8620.94391.10553.40591.05851.03340.99460.30620.9019
GMI 1111111111
AQI 1.00041.00031.00041.00031.00021.00021.00021.00031.00041.0003
SGI 1.06731.04821.02731.01040.94720.93850.95330.95080.99310.9891
DEPI 1.00021.03571.0291.00961.01640.99770.99490.99470.99711.0113
SGAI 0.90910.96241.03681.13471.17641.02280.8920.74530.74140.8095
LVGI 0.95240.92170.95810.9810.97280.93630.95640.93580.95570.9601
TATA -0.0387-0.0369-0.0183-0.0159-0.01040.00430.0116-0.0027-0.0052-0.0125
M-score -2.77-2.70-2.58-2.46-0.38-2.44-2.40-2.48-3.09-2.59
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