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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Baxter International Inc was -0.36. The lowest was -2.90. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Baxter International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9678||+||0.528 * 0.9787||+||0.404 * 0.7001||+||0.892 * 1.0113||+||0.115 * 1.0244|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0633||+||4.679 * -0.0183||-||0.327 * 1.1771|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,852 Mil.|
Revenue was 3893 + 3764 + 4472 + 4197 = $16,326 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1920 + 1801 + 2224 + 2073 = $8,018 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $14,497 Mil.
Total Assets was $30,015 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,967 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,013 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,243 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,312 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $12,054 Mil.
Net Income was 332 + 430 + 953 + 468 = $2,183 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -67 + 74 + -123 + 0 = $-116 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 696 + 96 + 1143 + 914 = $2,849 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2,914 Mil.
Revenue was 4154 + 3848 + 4368 + 3774 = $16,144 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1969 + 1891 + 1954 + 1946 = $7,760 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,487 Mil.
Total Assets was $25,629 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,152 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $946 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,946 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,795 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,528 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2852 / 16326)||/||(2914 / 16144)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1801 / 16144)||/||(1920 / 16326)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (14497 + 8967) / 30015)||/||(1 - (9487 + 8152) / 25629)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(946 / (946 + 8152))||/||(1013 / (1013 + 8967))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4243 / 16326)||/||(3946 / 16144)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((12054 + 6312) / 30015)||/||((7528 + 5795) / 25629)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2183 - -116||-||2849)||/||30015|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Baxter International Inc has a M-score of -2.78 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Baxter International Inc Annual Data
Baxter International Inc Quarterly Data