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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Baxter International Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Baxter International Inc was -0.36. The lowest was -2.90. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Baxter International Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8799||+||0.528 * 1.0697||+||0.404 * 0.9087||+||0.892 * 1.1678||+||0.115 * 0.8604|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9509||+||4.679 * -0.051||-||0.327 * 0.9946|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,842 Mil.|
Revenue was 4197 + 4264 + 3951 + 4614 = $17,026 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2073 + 2041 + 1961 + 2119 = $8,194 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,631 Mil.
Total Assets was $25,563 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,448 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $997 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,051 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5,990 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,753 Mil.
Net Income was 468 + 520 + 556 + 326 = $1,870 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + -15 + 24 + 9 = $18 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 914 + 599 + 559 + 1083 = $3,155 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2,766 Mil.
Revenue was 3710 + 3669 + 3448 + 3753 = $14,580 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1906 + 1939 + 1756 + 1905 = $7,506 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,597 Mil.
Total Assets was $25,250 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7,518 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $751 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,648 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,996 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,652 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2842 / 17026)||/||(2766 / 14580)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2041 / 14580)||/||(2073 / 17026)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9631 + 8448) / 25563)||/||(1 - (9597 + 7518) / 25250)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(751 / (751 + 7518))||/||(997 / (997 + 8448))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(4051 / 17026)||/||(3648 / 14580)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((7753 + 5990) / 25563)||/||((8652 + 4996) / 25250)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1870 - 18||-||3155)||/||25563|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Baxter International Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Baxter International Inc Annual Data
Baxter International Inc Quarterly Data