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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Best Buy Co Inc was 0.08. The lowest was -4.02. And the median was -2.68.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Best Buy Co Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1262||+||0.528 * 0.9584||+||0.404 * 1.0216||+||0.892 * 0.979||+||0.115 * 1.0328|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0205||+||4.679 * -0.0645||-||0.327 * 1.0267|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Apr16) TTM:||Last Year (Apr15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,097 Mil.|
Revenue was 8443 + 13623 + 8819 + 8528 = $39,413 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2145 + 2951 + 2112 + 2098 = $9,306 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,282 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,901 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,332 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $656 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7,596 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,334 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,334 Mil.
Net Income was 229 + 479 + 125 + 164 = $997 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 8 + -1 + 3 + 4 = $14 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 483 + 859 + 155 + 318 = $1,815 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $995 Mil.
Revenue was 8558 + 14209 + 9032 + 8459 = $40,258 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2030 + 3026 + 2076 + 1978 = $9,110 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $10,129 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,712 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,244 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $658 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7,603 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $6,721 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,217 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1097 / 39413)||/||(995 / 40258)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(9110 / 40258)||/||(9306 / 39413)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9282 + 2332) / 12901)||/||(1 - (10129 + 2244) / 13712)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(658 / (658 + 2244))||/||(656 / (656 + 2332))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(7596 / 39413)||/||(7603 / 40258)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1334 + 6334) / 12901)||/||((1217 + 6721) / 13712)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(997 - 14||-||1815)||/||12901|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Best Buy Co Inc has a M-score of -2.71 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Best Buy Co Inc Annual Data
Best Buy Co Inc Quarterly Data