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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of B/E Aerospace Inc was -1.46. The lowest was -3.22. And the median was -2.27.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of B/E Aerospace Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0603||+||0.528 * 0.9943||+||0.404 * 0.9988||+||0.892 * 1.0472||+||0.115 * 1.2521|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9865||+||4.679 * -0.029||-||0.327 * 1.0017|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $421 Mil.|
Revenue was 753.1 + 716.7 + 659.2 + 679.8 = $2,809 Mil.
Gross Profit was 305.3 + 280.1 + 262.8 + 255.4 = $1,104 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,777 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,252 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $388 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $86 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $359 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $853 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,045 Mil.
Net Income was 84.8 + 82.6 + 83.4 + 45.8 = $297 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 143.9 + -48 = $96 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 82 + 12.1 + 120.4 + 80.5 = $295 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $379 Mil.
Revenue was 700.6 + 690 + 637.9 + 653.7 = $2,682 Mil.
Gross Profit was 280.5 + 288.4 + 248.8 + 230.1 = $1,048 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,808 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,333 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $409 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $121 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $347 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $826 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,139 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(420.6 / 2808.8)||/||(378.8 / 2682.2)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1047.8 / 2682.2)||/||(1103.6 / 2808.8)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1776.6 + 387.5) / 3252.1)||/||(1 - (1807.6 + 408.7) / 3332.5)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(120.6 / (120.6 + 408.7))||/||(86.2 / (86.2 + 387.5))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(358.8 / 2808.8)||/||(347.3 / 2682.2)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2044.6 + 853.3) / 3252.1)||/||((2138.7 + 825.7) / 3332.5)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(296.6 - 95.9||-||295)||/||3252.1|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
B/E Aerospace Inc has a M-score of -2.49 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
B/E Aerospace Inc Annual Data
B/E Aerospace Inc Quarterly Data