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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of B/E Aerospace Inc was -1.46. The lowest was -3.22. And the median was -2.26.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of B/E Aerospace Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1357||+||0.528 * 1.0076||+||0.404 * 1.0121||+||0.892 * 1.0423||+||0.115 * 1.393|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9675||+||4.679 * -0.0282||-||0.327 * 0.9779|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $419 Mil.|
Revenue was 716.7 + 659.2 + 679.8 + 700.6 = $2,756 Mil.
Gross Profit was 280.1 + 262.8 + 255.4 + 280.5 = $1,079 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,730 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,219 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $391 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $86 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $357 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $832 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,060 Mil.
Net Income was 82.6 + 83.4 + 45.8 + 78.9 = $291 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 143.9 + -48 + 0 = $96 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 12.1 + 120.4 + 80.5 + 72.5 = $286 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $354 Mil.
Revenue was 690 + 637.9 + 653.7 + 662.8 = $2,644 Mil.
Gross Profit was 288.4 + 248.8 + 230.1 + 275.6 = $1,043 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,723 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,203 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $400 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $135 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $354 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $803 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,139 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(418.7 / 2756.3)||/||(353.7 / 2644.4)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1042.9 / 2644.4)||/||(1078.8 / 2756.3)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1729.6 + 390.8) / 3219.1)||/||(1 - (1723 + 399.6) / 3202.6)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(134.6 / (134.6 + 399.6))||/||(86.3 / (86.3 + 390.8))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(357.1 / 2756.3)||/||(354.1 / 2644.4)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2060.2 + 831.7) / 3219.1)||/||((2138.6 + 803.4) / 3202.6)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(290.7 - 95.9||-||285.5)||/||3219.1|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
B/E Aerospace Inc has a M-score of -2.38 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
B/E Aerospace Inc Annual Data
B/E Aerospace Inc Quarterly Data